World Toilet Day 2020 | UPSC

World Toilet Day 2020 | UPSC

      HEADLINES:

World Toilet Day 2020‘ to be celebrated tomorrow under ‘Swachh Bharat Mission – Grameen; Union Minister of Jal Shakti to felicitate top Districts/States with ‘Swachhata Puraskar

      WHY IN NEWS:

Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS), Ministry of Jal Shakti will be celebrating ‘World Toilet Day’- November 19, 2020 under ‘Swachh Bharat Mission – Grameen (SBMG)’

MINISTRY? :-Ministry of Jal Shakti
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3 : UN Observances

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS go through aim , organisers and the theme 2020.

For MAINS take a note on sustainable sanitation systems.

      ISSUE: 

Around 297,000 children under five – more than 800 every day – die annually from diarrhoea diseases -WHO

WORLD TOILET DAY 2020

logo of toilet day 2020

OVERVIEW

  • World Toilet Day has been an annual United Nations Observance since 2013.
  • It was first established in 2001 by the World Toilet Organization.

AIM

World Toilet Day celebrates toilets and raises awareness of the 4.2 billion people living without access to safely managed sanitation.

  • It is about taking action to tackle the global sanitation crisis and achieve Sustainable Development Goal 6: water and sanitation for all by 2030.

ORGANISERS

  • UN-Waterthe United Nationscoordination mechanism on water and sanitation.
  • Every year, UN-Water also sets the theme for World Toilet Day.

THEME 2020

In 2020, the theme is Sustainable sanitation and climate change.

CELEBRATIONS

  • Ahead of the day, UN-Water launches a global public campaign on www.worldtoiletday.org and on social media.
  • Individuals, organizations, governments, companies, schools and many other actors support the day.

SIGNIFICANCE

  • A well-functioning toilet is connected to a sanitation system that takes away and deals with human waste.

These systems need to work 24 hours a day, every day, to keep us and our living environments safe and clean.
 

  • Today, the world’s toilets – and the sanitation systems they are connected to – are under threat from climate change.
  • Flooding, drought and rising sea levels can damage any part of a sanitation system .

Toilets, pipes, tanks and treatment plants – spreading raw sewage create a public health emergency.

  • The effects of climate change are only becoming more frequent and more extreme.
  • We must make our sanitation systems resilient, so they are sustainable as climate change gets worse.
  • Billions of people live with weak and vulnerable sanitation systems, or no systems at all.
  • Climate change will disrupt or destroy sanitation services for huge numbers of people if we do not act.

SUSTAINABLE SANITATION SYSTEMS

  • Sustainable sanitation begins with a toilet that effectively captures human waste in a safe, accessible and dignified setting.

The waste then gets stored in a tank, which can be emptied later by a collection service, or transported away by pipework. 

  • The next stage is treatment and safe disposal.
  • Safe reuse of human waste helps save water, reduces and captures greenhouse gas emissions for energy production.
  • It can provide agriculture with a reliable source of water and nutrients.

Everyone must have sustainable sanitation, alongside clean water and hand washing facilities. 

  • This will help us protect and maintain our health security and stop the spread of deadly infectious diseases such as COVID-19, cholera and typhoid.

WHAT HAVE TOILETS GOT TO DO WITH CLIMATE CHANGE?

Sustainable sanitation means a system of reliable, effective faecal capture, disposal, treatment and safe reuse.

  • The effects of climate change threaten water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure.

When floodwater contaminates wells used for drinking water or when flooding damages toilets and spreads human waste into communities and food crops.

  • Spread of human waste into people’s living environments and cause deadly and chronic diseases.
  • Such a system is resilient to external shocks such as flooding, water shortages and sea level rise.
  • Most water and sanitation services around the world are water and energy-intensive.

World Toilet Day 2020 | UPSC

SOURCES : WORLDTOILETDAY.ORG

  • The processes involved in collecting, treating and delivering water and treating human waste result in greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Increasing the efficiency of these systems means reducing unnecessary water consumption and water loss.
  • Biogas from human waste can also be captured and used for greener energy generation.

TOP FACTS

  • 40% – or three billion people – of the global population live without basic hand washing facilities with soap and water available at home. (UNICEF 2020)

Globally, 80% of the wastewater generated by society flows back into the ecosystem without being treated or reused.

  • Hygiene promotion is the most cost-effective health intervention.
  • Climate-resilient water supply and sanitation could save the lives of more than 360,000 infants every year.
  • By 2050, up to 5.7 billion people could be living in areas where water is scarce for at least one month a year.
  • By 2050, the number of people at risk of floods will increase from its current level of 1.2 billion to 1.6 billion. (UNESCO 2018)

If we limit global warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, compared to 2°C, we could cut climate-induced water stress by up to 50%. -IPCC

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

CELEBRATIONS IN INDIA

Swachh bharat logo

  • For promoting awareness on access to Safe Sanitation and felicitating districts/states for making significant contribution towards Swachhata.
  • Union Minister of Jal Shakti will felicitate top Districts/States with ‘Swachhata Puraskar
  • Phase 2 of SBMG has been launched with focus on ODF Sustainability and Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM).

Various campaigns focusing on construction and beautification of Community Sanitary Complexes (CSCs) have been undertaken countrywide.

  • Over past one year like Swachh Sunder Samudayik Sauchalay (SSSS) and Samudayik Sauchalay Abhiyan (SSA).
     SOURCES:    PIB   | World Toilet Day 2020

 

DISCOVER MORE : UN OBSERVANCES

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