What is Open-RAN Architecture ? | UPSC


Open-RAN Architecture

      WHY IN NEWS:

Recently, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) Chairman said that use of Open-RAN (Radio Access Network) and software defined telecom networks will open new opportunities for Indian entities to enter into the network equipment market.

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Communication
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: COMMUNICATION : Science and technology



  • Open-RAN is not a technology, but rather an ongoing shift in mobile network architecture that allows networks to be built using subcomponents from a variety of vendors.
  • O-RAN has an open, multi-vendor architecture for deploying mobile networks, as opposed to the single-vendor proprietary architecture.
  • O-RAN uses software to make hardware manufactured by different companies work together.
  • The key concept of Open RAN is “opening” the protocols and interfaces between the various subcomponents (radios, hardware and software) in the RAN.


  • It is the part of a telecommunications system that connects individual devices to other parts of a network through radio connections.

  • As a technical matter this is what the industry refers to as a disaggregated RAN.

What is Open-RAN Architecture ? | UPSC

  • OpenRAN, by contrast, is based on open interoperable interfaces between the key components of the radio network.
  • This means that different hardware components, and the software that controls them, can be supplied by different vendors, according to the needs of the operator.


  • The Radio Unit (RU) is where the radio frequency signals are transmitted, received, amplified and digitized. The RU is located near, or integrated into, the antenna.
  • The Distributed Unit (DU) is where the real-time, baseband processing functions reside. The DU can be centralized or located near the cell site.
  • The Centralized Unit (CU) is where the less time-sensitive packet processing functions typically reside.


  • It is the interface between the RU, DU and the CU that are the main focus of Open RAN.
  • By opening and standardizing these interfaces (among others in the network), and incentivizing implementation of the same, networks can be deployed with a more modular design without being dependent upon a single vendor.
  • Making these changes can also allow the DU and CU to be run as virtualized software functions on vendor-neutral hardware.


  • In a traditional RAN system, the radio, hardware and software are proprietary.
  • This means that nearly all of the equipment comes from one supplier and that operators are unable to, for example, deploy a network using radios from one vendor with hardware and software from another vendor.


  • Mixing and matching cell sites from different providers typically leads to a performance reduction.
  • The result is that most network operators, while supporting multiple RAN vendors, will deploy networks using a single vendor in a geographic region which can create vendor lock-in with high barriers to entry for new innovators.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 


  • INNOVATION AND OPTIONS : An open environment expands the ecosystem, and with more vendors providing the building blocks, there is more innovation and more options for the Operators. They can also add new services.
  • NEW OPPORTUNITIES : It will open new opportunities for Indian entities to enter into the network equipment market.
  • COST SAVING : The benefits of this approach also include increased network agility and flexibility, and cost savings.

SUGGESTED READING :  https://www.o-ran.org
     SOURCES:  THE HINDU  | What is Open-RAN Architecture ? | UPSC

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