Used Vehicles and The Environment Report 2020 | UPSC
Used vehicles on Africa’s roads: UN report flags environment concerns
WHY IN NEWS:
At least 60% vehicles on Africa’s roads are used and imported
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Transport : Reports
For PRELIMS take a note of Publishers and Key points .
For MAINS transport sector has been evolving gradually . What are your thoughts on old vehicle ? How can we dismantle them safely ? Let us dive in !
USED VEHICLES AND THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT 2020
- Used Vehicles and The Environment : A Global Overview of used light duty vehicles (LDV) , Flow , Scale and Regulation
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
- The global fleet of light duty vehicles (LDVs) is set to at least double by 2050.
- Despite road accidents, air pollution, and climate change there are currently no regional or global agreements on the trade and flow in used vehicles.
- The three largest exporters of used vehicles, the European Union (EU), Japan, and the United States of America (USA).
- These countries have exported 14 million used light duty vehicles (LDVs) worldwide between 2015 and 2018.
- The major destinations for used vehicles from the EU are West and North Africa.
- Japan exports mainly to Asia and East and Southern Africa and the USA mainly to the Middle East and Central America.
EXPORT TRENDS | Source : UNEP
- Seventy per cent of exported LDVs head to developing countries.
- It is followed by Eastern Europe (24 per cent), Asia-Pacific (15 per cent), the Middle East (12 per cent) and Latin America (nine per cent).
- Nigeria, the largest importer of used cars in the world, has been importing cars that are over nine years old.
- Pollutant and climate emissions of used vehicles
- The quality and safety of used vehicles
- Energy consumption
- The costs to operate used vehicles.
NEED FOR REGULATION
- This trade needs to be supervised.
- Regulation is essential to ensure the quality of the vehicles and reduce (urban) air pollution and global climate emissions.
- Equally, few developed countries have restrictions on the export of used vehicles.
- Regulations can take many forms from complete import bans to age restrictions, fiscal incentives, labelling and awareness requirements.
- Regulations reduce imports of old and polluting used vehicles, and encourage the imports of cleaner used vehicles.
Current regulatory environment for used vehicles.| Source : UNEP
- Out of the 146 countries surveyed in the report, 18 have adopted a complete ban on the import of used vehicles.
- Few countries have adopted advanced vehicle emissions standards for used vehicles.
- Fiscal instruments can be an effective means to regulate the import of used vehicles.
- Some countries use selective bans, for example barring diesel vehicles above a certain age from city centres.
- Some countries have introduced mandatory labelling of used vehicles, to show consumers a vehicle’s fuel consumption and emissions.
GAP IN POLICY MEASURES
- The gap in policy measures between exporting and importing markets has led to a global trade in used vehicles.
- Used vehicles are a major contributor to air pollution and climate emissions in recipient countries.
- Most developing markets today import vehicles that would not be allowed to circulate on exporting country roads.
- About onethird (47 countries) have ‘good’ or ‘very good’ policies.
RESTRICTION ON IMPORTS
- The stricter an importing country is on regulating the import of used vehicles and associated technology, the cleaner is the vehicle technology.
- Road safety can also be improved.
- Some countries have been providing incentives for the import of used hybrid electric (HEV) and electric (EV) vehicles.
- Some countries which had banned the import of all used vehicles are now permitting used hybrid electric vehicles or all-electric vehicles.
- More research is needed to detail further the impacts of the trade in used vehicles, including that of heavy duty used vehicles.
- At global and /or regional level harmonized regulations should be developed that regulate the trade in used vehicles.
- The regulation should encompass measures to ensure used vehicles , safety and quality norms .
- Regulations should be gradually tightened in the coming decade.
- Used low and no emissions vehicles should be promoted as an affordable way for middle- and low-income countries.
- Exporting and importing countries have a shared responsibility to improve and regulate used vehicles to minimize their negative impacts.
- A strong implementation and enforcement mechanism should be introduced to check compliance and enforcement of the agreed regulations.
SOURCES:DownToEarth | Used Vehicles and The Environment Report 2020 | UPSC