United in Science 2020 Report | UPSC

United in Science 2020 Report | UPSC

      HEADLINES:

Earth may temporarily pass dangerous 1.5℃ warming limit by 2024, major new report says

      WHY IN NEWS:

The report found while greenhouse gas emissions declined slightly in 2020 due to COVID-19, they remained very high

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Report

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS it is important to go through the publisher and key points.

For MAINS this report is very important as it justifies reduction of Carbon dioxide . Take a note of it in your Mains book . Let us dive in !

      ISSUE: 

Record heat, ice loss, wildfires, floods and droughts continue to worsen, affecting communities, nations and economies around the world.

REPORT ANALYSIS

TITLE

United in Science 2020 Report

PUBLISHED BY

The United in Science 2020 Report has been compiled by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) under the direction of the United Nations Secretary-General.

United in Science 2020 Report UPSC

OBJECTIVE

The report is to bring together the latest climate science related updates from a group of key global partner organizations. 

  • Global Partners : WMO, Global Carbon Project (GCP), UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOC), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Met Office.

OBSERVATIONS

  • Human activities emitted 42 billion tonnes of CO₂ in 2019 alone.
  • Under the Paris Agreement, nations committed to reducing emissions by 2030.

Report shows a shortfall of about 15 billion tonnes of CO₂ between these commitments, and pathways consistent with limiting warming to well below 2℃ . 

  • The gap increases to 32 billion tonnes for the more ambitious 1.5℃ goal.
  • The report models a range of climate outcomes based on various socioeconomic and policy scenarios.
  • It shows if emission reductions are large and sustained, we can still meet the Paris goals .

GREENHOUSE GAS CONCENTRATIONS

  • Global Atmosphere Watch Concentrations of the major greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4, and N2O continued to increase in 2019 and 2020.

Overall emissions reductions in 2020 will lead to a small reduction in the annual increase of the atmospheric concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases.

  • Sustained reductions in emissions are required to stabilize global warming.

GLOBAL CARBON PROJECT

Global fossil CO2 emissions reached a new record high of 36.7 Gigatonnes (Gt) in 2019, 62% higher than in 1990.

  • CO2 emissions will decline in 2020 due to confinement policies imposed in many countries.
  • At their lowest point, in April, daily CO2 emissions were approximately at the level they were in 2006.

United in Science 2020 Report | UPSC

GLOBAL CLIMATE IN 2016–2020 #WMO

  • Arctic sea-ice continues its long-term downward trend.
  • Global mean sea-level has been rising faster than the long-term trend.

2016–2020 is expected to be the warmest on record with an average global mean surface temperature of 1.1 °C above pre-industrial era (1850–1900). 

  • A greater loss of ice mass from the ice sheets contributed to an increased sea-level rise.
  • Major impacts have been caused by extreme weather and climate events.
  • A clear fingerprint of human-induced climate change has been identified on many of these extreme events.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

TO-DO LIST ON WEATHER CO-OPERATION

  • Increased international coordination across national research vessel.
  • Flexibility in operations can be implemented through partnership with commercial and local operators.
  • Coordinated reseeding of autonomous arrays and expanded consideration of unmanned platforms is necessary.

Investment to accelerate the transformation from manned to automatic in-situ observation stations,especially in the developing world.

  • Increased resilience through redundancy and complementary networks across surface and space-based platforms.
     SOURCES:DownToEarth | United in Science 2020 Report | UPSC

DISCOVER MORE : REPORTS

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