Ulcerative Colitis Analysis UPSC

Ulcerative Colitis Analysis | UPSC

      HEADLINES:

Japan’s prime minister, Shinzo Abe, has announced that he is retiring due to worsening health.

      WHY IN NEWS:

The condition 65-year-old Abe suffers from is ulcerative colitis.

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health:Diseases

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS go through causes , symptoms and medication of ulcerative colitis .

For MAINS nothing much here . Let us dive in !

      ISSUE: 

Ulcerative colitis is a long-term condition that causes the lining of the colon and rectum to become inflamed and develop tiny open sores (ulcers).

ULCERATIVE COLITIS

  • Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes long-lasting inflammation and ulcers (sores) in your digestive tract.

Ulcerative colitis affects the innermost lining of your large intestine (colon) and rectum.

  • Symptoms usually develop over time, rather than suddenly.

SYMPTOMS

  • Diarrhea, often with blood or pus
  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Rectal pain
  • Rectal bleeding — passing small amount of blood with stool
  • Urgency to defecate
  • Inability to defecate despite urgency
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • In children, failure to grow

Ulcerative Colitis Analysis UPSC

Ulcerative Colitis Analysis UPSC

CAUSES

  • The exact cause of ulcerative colitis remains unknown.

One possible cause is an immune system malfunction.

  • When our immune system tries to fight off an invading virus or bacterium, an abnormal immune response causes the immune system to attack the cells in the digestive tract, too.
  • Heredity also seems to play a role in that ulcerative colitis is more common in people who have family members with the disease.
  • However, most people with ulcerative colitis don’t have this family history.

COMPLICATIONS

  • Severe bleeding
  • A hole in the colon (perforated colon)
  • Severe dehydration
  • Liver disease (rare)
  • Bone loss (osteoporosis)
  • Inflammation of your skin, joints and eyes
  • An increased risk of colon cancer
  • A rapidly swelling colon (toxic megacolon)
  • Increased risk of blood clots in veins and arteries

TREATMENTS

  • Although there is no cure for the disease, there is a range of drugs that can help to reduce the symptoms .
  • The goal is to heal the inflamed gut completely as this reduces the chance of disease flare-ups and complications.

The first treatment given is usually a class of drugs known as aminosalicylates or 5-ASAs.

  • These drugs are delivered by mouth and work locally in the gut to reduce inflammation.
  • They’re usually the first treatment option for mild or moderate ulcerative colitis.
  • They tend to be used with or instead of 5-ASAs if 5-ASAs alone aren’t effective.

Other drugs that are used to treat the disease include immuno suppressants, such as tacrolimus and tofacitinib.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Ulcerative colitis can be debilitating and can sometimes lead to life-threatening complications.
  • While it has no known cure, treatment can greatly reduce signs and symptoms of the disease and even bring about long-term remission.
     SOURCES:DownToEarth | Ulcerative Colitis Analysis UPSC

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