IASbhai Daily Editorial Hunt | 21st Nov 2020
“It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop.” – Confucius
EDITORIAL HUNT #253 :“Time Use Survey vs SDG 2030 | UPSC”
Time Use Survey vs SDG 2030 | UPSC
Indira Hirway is Director and Professor of Economics, Center For Development Alternatives, Ahmedabad
The ‘Time Use Survey’ as an opportunity lost
Gaps in the Indian version’s data will impact Sustainable Development Goal 5.4 and the ILO’s resolution on defining work
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2 : 3 : SDG : Labour : Right to Work
Indian Time Use Survey, 2019 has missed two important opportunities — of implementing the SDG and the ILO’s important resolution.Elucidate-(GS 3)
- India Time Use Survey, 2019
- Right to Work
- Break points in the survey
- COMMENDABLE EFFORTS : As a survey that has covered the entire country for the first time, the National Statistical Office needs to be complimented for accomplishing the task.
- SIGNIFICANCE : The “Time Use Survey, or TUS, provides a framework for measuring time dispositions by the population on different activities.
TUS DATA | SOURCES : PIB
- MOTIVE : Its primary objective is to measure participation of men and women in paid and unpaid activities.
TIME USE SURVEY FEATURES
- ROUTINE OBSERVATIONS : It also provides information on time spent on learning, socializing, leisure activities, self-careactivities, etc.,by the household members.
- TIMELINE : The data collection was done for one day — normal or other day in a 24-hour time diary, beginning at 4 a.m. and till 4 a.m. the next day.
- DEPRECIATED TIME SLOTS : In India, where literacy is low, the time diary was filled in by interviewers in 30 minute time slots through face-to-face interviews.
- UN RESOLUTION : The path-breaking Resolution of the 19th International Conference on Labour Statistics,- International Labour Organization has raised focus on TUS..
- COMMITMENT TO SDG : The Government of India is fully committed to the SDGs and has also indicated its inclination to implementing the second.
- DATA INTERPRETATION : TUS data are also required for understanding and monitoring major socio-economic concerns of countries.
SOURCES : PIB
- COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK : Time use data are needed for implementing not only the SDG 5.4 on unpaid work, but also for implementing the SDG-1 to the SDG-10.
- SCATTERED INFORMATION : Even for the SDG 5.4 — considered to be the most important SDG for measuring and valuing unpaid domestic servicesand unpaid care by women and men — the Indian TUS data are not adequate.
- DATA DEFICIENCY : This valuation is not adequate, because it values only the labour input and leaves out the capital and technology used.
- COMPUTATIONS AND RECORDS : Satellite accounts of unpaid work, however, takes into consideration capital/technology while computing the accounts.
WHAT IS SATELLITE ACCOUNTS ?
- Satellite accounts of unpaid work use the principal functions concept, which can be compared with the national accounts functions.
- Under this approach, unpaid work is presented in terms of this classification of the functions.
- It is similar to the classification of the functions under the national-accounts.
- These accounts would be comparable with the national income accounts, and measure the correct contribution of unpaid work to the GDP.
MISSING INFORMATION FROM TUS
- ASSETS AND ACCOUNTING : This accounting requires information on the assets of a household that includes assets used in domestic services, vehicles used in travel and commuting, and consumer durables, etc.
- AGGREGATE WAGES : The accounting also requires wage rates prevailing in different locations.
- GENDER DATA : Since there is no data collected on the ownership of the assets by gender, valuation by gender will not be feasible.
- The ILO’s Resolution — referred to above — presents a new definition of work, new forms of work and a new labour force status classification.
- The TUS does not even have employment as one of the objectives of the TUS.
“WORK” IS DIVIDED INTO FIVE CATEGORIES
- Employment(production of goods and services for pay, profit or barter);
- Own use production of goods and services by households;
- Unpaid trainee work,
- Volunteer work;
- Other work (compulsory work performed without pay to produce goods/services for others).
BREAKS IN INDIAN SURVEYS
- UNDER-REPORTED DATA : Indian Employment/Unemployment Surveys, or EUS, tend to under-report informal workers, due to the nature of informal employment.
- SHORT TERM SCOPE : Being frequently intermittent, scattered, temporary, short term or unstable, it is frequently not reported accurately by the EUS.
- PARTIAL INFORMATION : The EUS are not equipped to collect data on multiple jobs performed by people, the time spent on work (i.e. intensity of work).
- WORKFORCE CHARACTERISTICS : The TUS, which collects comprehensive information on all human activities, provides improved estimates of the workforce as well as shed light on important characteristics of the workforce.
- RECORDING EVENTS : A TUS collects data only for one or two days per person in a week, while according to the ILO, “a person is a worker if she/he has spent at least one hour on work in the reference week”.
- INFORMAL WORK : As informal work is frequently intermittent and irregular, the TUS information on one day’s work (for less than one hour) or non-work cannot qualify the person to be a worker or non-worker.
- EMPLOYMENT NUMBERS : Thus, the TUS cannot provide information on the workforce/employment status of persons.
- RENDERING ESTIMATES : The independent TUS cannot provide estimates of the workforce/labour force.
In short, the Indian TUS has missed two important opportunities — of implementing the SDG 5.4 and the ILO’s important resolution.
SOURCES: THE HINDU EDITORIAL HUNT | Time Use Survey vs SDG 2030 | UPSC