Statement on Climate of India during 2020-IMD | UPSC

Statement on Climate of India during 2020-IMD | UPSC

      HEADLINES:

IMD issues a Statement on Climate of India during 2020

      WHY IN NEWS:

Hot from PIB !

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Earth Science
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Reports : IMD : Earth Science : Disaster Management

      ISSUE: 

The year 2020 as the eighth warmest year on record since 1901

CLIMATE OF INDIA DURING 2020

KEY POINTS

  • 12 out of 15 warmest years were during the recent fifteen years (2006-2020).
  • Past decade (2001-2010/ 2011-2020) was also the warmest decade on record.

Rainfall over the country as a whole during the SW monsoon season (June-September) was above normal (109 % of LPA)
 

  • The 2020 Northeast monsoon season (October-December) rainfall over the country as a whole was normal (101% of LPA).
  • During 2020, 5 cyclones formed over the North Indian Ocean.

CYCLONES
These are Super cyclonic Storm AMPHAN, Very Severe Cyclonic Storms NIVAR & GATI, Severe Cyclonic Storm NISARGA, and Cyclonic Storm ‘BUREVI’.

The country also experienced other high impact weather events like, extremely heavy rainfall, floods, landslide, thunderstorm, lightning, cold waves, etc

TITLE

  • Statement on Climate of India during 2020.

PUBLISHED BY

The Climate Research and Services (CRS)of the India Meteorological Department (IMD) has issued a Statement on Climate of India during 2020

HIGHLIGHTS

  • The annual mean land surface air temperature averaged over India during 2020 was above normal.
  • During the year, annual mean land surface air temperature averaged over the country was+0.290C above normal (based on the data of 1981-2010).
  • The year 2020 was the eighth warmest year on record since nation-wide records commenced in 1901.
  • However, this is substantially lower than the highest warming observed over India during 2016 (+0.710C).
  • The monsoon and post-monsoon seasons with mean temperature anomalies of +0.430C and +0.530C respectively mainly contributed to this warming.
  • Mean temperature during the winter was also above normal with anomaly of +0.140C.
  • However, during the pre-monsoon season temperature was below normal (-0.030C).

The Global mean surface temperature anomaly during 2020 (January to October as per WMO state of the global climate) is +1.20C

  • The 2020 annual rainfall over the country as a whole was 109% of its Long Period Average (LPA) based on the data of 1961-2010.
  • The monsoon season rainfall over the country as a whole was above normal and was 109% of its LPA.

Statement on Climate of India during 2020-IMD | UPSC

Statement on Climate of India during 2020-IMD | UPSC

TEMPERATURES

  • The 2020 annual mean land surface air temperature for the country was +0.290C above the 1981-2010 period average.
  • The five warmest years on record in order were: 2016 (+0.710C), 2009 (+0.550C), 2017 (+0.5410C), 2010 (+0.5390C), and 2015 (+0.420C).
  • It may be mentioned that 12 out of 15 warmest years were during the recent fifteen years (2006-2020).

Past decade (2001-2010/ 2011-2020) was also the warmest decade on record with anomalies of 0.230C /0.340C

  • The country averaged annual mean temperature during 1901-2020 showed an increasing trend of 0.620C/100 years.
  • It is relatively lower increasing trend (0.240C/100 years) in minimum temperature.
  • The country averaged seasonal mean temperatures were also above the average during all the seasons except pre-monsoon season.
  • The country averaged mean monthly temperatures were warmer than the normal during all the months of the year except March and June.

RAINFALL

  • The annual rainfall over the country was 109 % of long period average (LPA) of 117.7 cms.
  • Rainfall over the country as a whole during the SW monsoon season (June-September), which is the principal rainy season of the country, was above normal (109 % of LPA of 88 cms).

Four broad geographical regions of the country, Central India, South Peninsular and East & Northeast India received seasonal rainfall of 115%, 129% and 106% of its LPA respectively

  • Northwest India received seasonal rainfall of 84% of its LPA.
  • The 2020 Northeast monsoon season (October-December) rainfall over the country as a whole was normal (101% of LPA).
  • The seasonal rainfall during the northeast monsoon season over the core region of the south peninsula (comprising of 5 subdivisions viz.
  • Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Rayalaseema, Tamil Nadu & Puducherry, South Interior Karnataka and Kerala, was also normal (110% of LPA).
  • All the five subdivisions of the core region except Kerala received excess/normal rainfall.

TROPICAL STORMS IN THE INDIAN SEAS

  • During 2020, 5 cyclones formed over the North Indian Ocean.
  • These are Super cyclonic Storm AMPHAN, Very Severe Cyclonic Storms NIVAR & GATI, Severe Cyclonic Storm NISARGA, and Cyclonic Storm ‘BUREVI’.
  • Of these, NISARGA &GATI formed over Arabian Sea, while the remaining 3 cyclones viz. AMPHAN, NIVAR & BUREVI formed over the Bay of Bengal.

Out of these five most devastating cyclones, the Super Cyclonic Storm AMPHAN formed in the pre-monsoon season and crossed West Bengal coast over Sundarbans on 20th May

  • It claimed 90 lives & about 4,000 livestock mainly in West Bengal.
  • The Severe Cyclonic Storm NISARGAformed in the Monsoon season, crossed Maharashtra coast on 3rd June claimed 4 lives & 2000 livestock in Maharashtra.
  • The remaining three cyclones viz.NIVAR, BUREVI & GATI formed during the post monsoon season.
  • The Very Severe Cyclonic Storm NIVAR crossed Tamil Nadu & Puducherry coasts close to north of Puducherry and claimed 12 lives & 10836 livestock in Tamil Nadu & Andhra Pradesh.
  • The Cyclonic Storm BUREVI claimed 9 lives & 200 livestock in Tamil Nadu. The VSCS “GATI” made landfall over Somalia coast.
  • All these weather systems and their remnants and other low-pressure systems caused above normal rainfall over central and peninsular India.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

HIGH IMPACT WEATHER EVENTS

  • The country also experienced other high impact weather events like, extremely heavy rainfall, floods, landslide, thunderstorm, lightning, cold waves, etc.
  • Bihar & Uttar Pradesh were the most adversely affected states during the year which reportedly claimed more than 350 deaths from each state mainly due to thunderstorm, lightning & cold wave events.
  • Heavy rainfall & flood related incidents reportedly claimed over 600 lives from different parts of the country during pre-monsoon, monsoon & post-monsoon seasons.
  • Of these, 129 lives were reportedly claimed from Assam alone.

Thunderstorms and lightning reportedly claimed 815 lives from different parts of the country

  • Among these, 280 from Bihar, 220 from Uttar Pradesh, 122 from Jharkhand, 72 from Madhya Pradesh, 23 from Maharashtra and 20 from Andhra Pradesh were significant.
  • Cold wave conditions mainly prevailed over central parts the country especially in the month of January.
  • It caused deaths of about 150 people.
  • Of these deaths, 88 deaths were reported from Uttar Pradesh alone, 45 from Bihar only on single day on 1st January & 16 from Jharkhand.
     SOURCES:   PIB| Statement on Climate of India during 2020-IMD | UPSC

 

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