Road to Peace in Nagaland
Hurdles to Naga peace
WHY IN NEWS:
Why is the main rebel outfit upset? What is the government interlocutor’s stand on the ‘framework agreement’?
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Internal Security Challenges : Non-State Actors
For MAINS go through Shillong Accord of 1975 . The whole issue is surrounded with a controversy between Governor and extremist faction . Such questions are asked least these days ! But yes we have to cover this . Let us dive in !
- Fresh hurdles have emerged in the road to peace in Nagaland.
- NSCN (I-M) is the largest of the extremist groups in the peace process since 1997.
- There have been more than 100 rounds of talks and several twists and turns.
THE SHAKING PEACE PROCESS
- Talks, fatigue and growing impatience across the Naga domain gave way to optimism when Mr. Ravi was made Nagaland’s Governor in July 2019.
- His appointment was seen as a message from New Delhi that the solution would be found soon.
- Governor remarked NSCN (I-M) imputed “imaginary contents” to the framework agreement .
- In June this year, the NSCN (I-M) took offence to Governors letter to Nagaland Chief Minister in which he referred to them as “armed gangs” running parallel governments.
- The NSCN (I-M) reacted by demanding Governors removal from the peace process .
- On the other side the Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs), a conglomerate of seven rival groups, and some social organisations want him to stay.
WHAT IS THE ‘FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT’?
- The optimism among some Naga groups eroded a bit when the NNPGs were brought on board the peace process on November 17, 2017.
- This agreement ostensibly made the peace process inclusive .
- It was also a throwback to the first peace deal, the Shillong Accord of 1975 that Naga hardliners rejected.
- That had led to the birth of the NSCN in January 1980.
- Differences surfaced within the outfit a few years later over initiating a dialogue process with the Indian government.
- It split into the NSCN (I-M) and NSCN (Khaplang) in April 1988 who often engaged in fratricidal battles.
THE CONTENT LEAK
- A few days ago, the NSCN (I-M) released the contents of the framework agreement.
- This provided for an “enduring inclusive new relationship of peaceful co-existence.
- NSCN (I-M) defined the meaning of peaceful co-existence of the two entities (sovereign powers) and strongly indicated a settlement outside the purview of the Constitution of India.
- The group said- refrained from publishing the contents of the framework agreement respecting the “tacit understanding reached between the two sides not to release to the public domain for security reasons”.
- The Governor said the framework agreement was an “acceptance of the Indian Constitution” by the outfit.
WHAT ARE THE OTHER HURDLES?
In his ‘Naga Independence Day’ speech NSCN (I-M) general secretary Thuingaleng Muivah insisted the Nagas “will never merge with India”.
- But States adjoining Nagaland, where the peace headquarters of NSCN (I-M) is located, are apprehensive of the sovereignty issue.
- This is because of the NSCN (I-M)’s idea of Greater Nagalim — a homeland encompassing all Naga-inhabited areas in Nagaland and beyond.
- Apart from Myanmar, where many of more than 50 Naga tribes live, the Greater Nagalim map includes large swathes of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Manipur.
- The All Arunachal Pradesh Students’ Union warned against any “territorial changes” while finding a solution.
- The outfit may not accept any agreement that excludes areas inhabited by them.
- The NNPGs, whose members are primarily from Nagaland, are also a factor.