Project-75 - ‘Vagir’ | Fifth Scorpene Submarine | UPSC

Project-75 – ‘Vagir’ | Fifth Scorpene Submarine | UPSC


The fifth Scorpene submarine of Project-75 – ‘Vagir’ launched at Mazagon Dock today

      WHY IN NEWS:

With the launch of Vagir, India further cements its position as a Submarine Building Nation, in tune with the spirit of Aatmanirbhar Bharat and Make In India

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Defence


For PRELIMS name , technology used , applications and features stand very important .

For MAINS go through the significance of submarine and also Project 75 . Let us dive in !




The fifth Scorpene submarine of Project-75 named ‘Vagir’ has been launched  at Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL) in Mumbai . 

  • Earlier it was commissioned into the Indian Navy on December 3, 1973, and was decommissioned on June 7, 2001.
  • After almost three decades of yeoman service to the nation.
  • In true nautical tradition, she finds a new incarnation, by the same name – Vagir.
  • It is infused with new life, by Mazagon Dock, once again a very powerful predator of the deep, guarding the vast maritime interests of our nation.


  • Vagir, ex-Russia is named after the Sand Fish.
  • It is a deadly deep sea predator of the Indian Ocean


Vagir is part of the six Kalvari-class submarines being built in India.  


The submarines, designed by French naval defence and energy company DCNS, are being built as part of Indian Navy’s Project-75.

  • The Scorpene project is given support by the Department of Defence Production (MoD) and Indian Navy throughout its various phases of construction.


The state-of-the-art technology utilized in the rebuilt Scorpene has ensured superior stealth features such as :

  • Advanced acoustic absorption techniques
  • Low radiated noise levels
  • Hydro-dynamically optimised shape etc.

Project-75 - ‘Vagir’ | Fifth Scorpene Submarine | UPSC


  • Vagir has ability to launch an attack on the enemy using precision guided weapons.

The attack can be launched with both torpedoes and tube launched anti-ship missiles, whilst underwater or on surface.

  • The stealth of this potent platform is enhanced by the special attention provided to her characteristic underwater signatures.
  • These stealth features give it an invulnerability, unmatched by most submarines.


Notably, Scorpene submarines can undertake multifarious types of missions i.e

  • Anti-Surface warfare
  • Anti-Submarine warfare
  • Intelligence gathering
  • Mine Laying
  • Area Surveillance etc.


Project-75 - ‘Vagir’ | Fifth Scorpene Submarine | UPSC


  • The Submarine is designed to operate in all theatres of operation, showcasing interoperability with other components of a Naval Task Force.
  • It is a potent platform, marking a transformational shift in submarine operations.

With the launch of Vagir, India further cements its position as a Submarine Building Nation.

  • MDL has more than lived up to its reputation as ‘Warship and Submarine Builders to the Nation
  • This is totally in sync with the current impetus of the Government towards ‘Make in India‘ and ‘Aatma Nirbhar Bharat‘.


Two submarines of the ongoing Project-75 Scorpene programme at MDL, Kalvari and Khanderi, have been commissioned into the Indian Navy.

  • The third submarine, Karanj, is in the last phase of rigorous sea trials.
  • The fourth Scorpene, Vela, has commenced her sea trials
  • The sixth and last submarine, Vagsheer, is being readied for boot together.


  • The Ministry of Defence has issued the “Expression of Interest” (EoI) to shortlist potential Indian Strategic Partners (SPs) .

This was under the strategic partnership model (SP Model) for the construction of six conventional submarines under Project 75 India.

  • The project was to be in collaboration with the Indian Navy in collaboration with the selected manufacturer.
  • Under the SP model, government will also nominate the foreign original equipment manufacturer (OEM) under the umbrella of Make in India.

This is a step towards opening a second production line for diesel electric submarines in India. 

  • The first was the procurement of 111 Naval Utility Helicopters (NUH).
  • Four foreign firms have so far responded to the Indian government’s request for proposal for the project.
  • These are French firm Naval Group, Russia’s Rosoboronexport Rubin Design Bureau, Germany’s ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems and Sweden’s Saab.


  • P75I was first cleared in 2007, but lay dormant until now after undergoing numerous changes.
  • The P75I project is part of a 30-year submarine building plan that ends in 2030.
  • The project cost is about Rs. 45,000 crore.

As part of this plan, India was to build 24 submarines18 conventional submarines and six nuclear-powered submarines (SSNs).

  • This project envisages the construction of six conventional submarines with better sensors and weapons and the Air Independent Propulsion System (AIP).

AIP is any marine propulsion technology that allows a non-nuclear submarine to operate without access to atmospheric oxygen. 


  • The number 75 in Project 75 refers to such unique identifier which was assigned to a programme for series production of submarines in India.

Based on the specifications drawn for Project 75, the Scorpene class submarine from France, chosen under the project.

  • It is being constructed at the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) in Mumbai.
  • In a series production of the warship construction project, all ships/submarines of the series have common design characteristics and capabilities.
  • The first ship of the serial construction project provides a class name to all warships in the project for common reference.

The term ‘class’ in the Kolkata Class refers to a series of warships constructed under Project 15A which includes Indian naval ships INS Kolkata, INS Kochi and INS Chennai. 

  • Similarly, all six submarines constructed under Project 75 are referred to as Kalvari Class of submarines.

Other examples of project and class references of Indian Naval Ships are as:

  • Project 15 Destroyers – Delhi Class (Delhi, Mysore, and Mumbai)
  • Project 16 Frigates – Godavari Class (Godavari, Ganga and Gomti)
  • Project 16A Frigates – Brahmaputra Class (Brahmaputra, Betwa and Beas)
  • Project 17 Stealth Frigates – Shivalik Class (Shivalik, Sahyadri and Satpura)
  • Project 28 Anti-Submarine Corvettes – Kamorta Class (Kamorta, Kadmatt, Kiltan and Kavaratti)

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Building the Scorpene was indeed a challenge for MDL.
  • The complexity of the simplest of tasks increased exponentially due to all work having to be done in the most congested of spaces.

The submarine is designed to operate in all theatres of operation, showcasing interoperability with other components of a Naval Task Force.

  • Two SSK submarines built by MDL during 1992-94 are in active service, which is a testimony to the professionalism and capability of Mazagon Dock personnel.
     SOURCES:   PIB  | Project-75 – ‘Vagir’ | Fifth Scorpene Submarine | UPSC



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