Preventing the Next Pandemic | UNEP Report | UPSC
75% emerging infectious diseases zoonotic: UN Report
WHY IN NEWS:
Preventing the Next Pandemic: Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission was released on July 6, 2020, celebrated as ‘World Zoonoses Day’.
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Zoonotic Diseases : Reports : UNEP
For PRELIMS go through the title and the publisher . Just make key points to recollect this article .
For MAINS go through the 10 point recommendations given below . It is important . Let us dive in !
- About 60 per cent of known infectious diseases in humans and 75 per cent of all emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic.
- Zoonotic infections can be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in nature, with animals playing a vital role in maintaining such infections.
The report identified seven anthropogenic driving factors leading to the emergence of zoonotic diseases —
- Increased demand for animal protein.
- Rise in intense and unsustainable farming.
- The increased use and exploitation of wildlife.
- Unsustainable utilisation of natural resources.
- Travel and transportation.
- Changes in food supply chains and the climate change crisis.
- GROWING DEMAND : The growing demand for animal-derived food has encouraged the intensification and industrialisation of animal production.
- ANIMAL BREEDING : a large number of genetically similar animals are bred in for higher productivity and disease resistance.
- FARMING PRACTISES : Intensive farm settings cause them to be raised in close proximity to each other, in less ideal conditions characterised by limited biosecurity and animal husbandry,
- WASTE MANAGMENT : Poor waste management and use of antimicrobials as substitute for these conditions.
- ANTI- MICROBIAL RESISTANCES : High use of antimicrobials in such farm settings is also contributing to the burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
- FOREST COVER : Moreover, loss of forest cover for agricultural purposes such as growing of soy, used as a key constituent of animal feed, is also influencing the emergence of zoonotic diseases by increasing human access to wildlife.
- WILDLIFE EXPLOITATION : The increased use and exploitation of wildlife can bring humans in closer contact with wild animals.
Thus increasing the risk of zoonotic disease emergence.
OTHER ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES
- Harvesting of wild animals for meat.
- Hunting and consumption of wildlife for recreation.
- Trading of live animals for recreational use or research.
- Use of animal parts for decorative.
- Medical or commercial purposes.
IMPORTANCE OF A ‘ONE-HEALTH’
- Utilisation of natural resources owing to urbanisation, changes in land-use pattern and growing industrialisation can also cause destruction and fragmentation of wildlife habitats and increase contact between humans and wildlife.
- The UNEP and ILRI emphasised on the importance of a ‘One-Health’ approach to manage and prevent zoonotic disease outbreaks and pandemics, occurring at the interface of human, animal and environment health.
- AWARENESS : Raising awareness of zoonotic diseases.
- ONE HEALTH : Investing in interdisciplinary approaches, including One Health.
- SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY : Expanding scientific enquiry into zoonotic diseases.
- IMPACT ASSESSMENT : Improving cost-benefit analyses of interventions to include full-cost accounting of societal impacts of disease.
- BEST PRACTISES : Strengthening monitoring and regulation practices associated with zoonotic diseases, including food systems.
- SUSTAINABLE CHOICES : Incentivising sustainable land management practices and developing alternatives for food security and livelihoods that do not rely on the destruction of habitats and biodiversity.
- IMPROVING BIOSECURITY : Identifying key drivers of emerging diseases in animal husbandry and encouraging proven management and zoonotic disease control measures.
- SUSTAINABLE CO-EXISTENCE : Supporting the sustainable management of landscapes and seascapes that enhance sustainable co-existence of agriculture and wildlife.
- CAPACITY BUILDING : Strengthening capacities among health stakeholders in all countries and
- It is time we opt for sustainable methods of food production and reduce dependence on intensive systems to preserve health and ecosystems.
- To prevent future outbreaks, we must become much more deliberate about protecting our natural environment
It may be the worst, but it is not the first.
SOURCES:DownToEarth | Preventing the Next Pandemic | UNEP Report | UPSC