NOAA Report on Fisheries | UPSC
As many as 47 fish stocks rebuilt since 2000: NOAA data
WHY IN NEWS:
The total number of stocks listed as overfished slightly increased and two previously overfished stocks were rebuilt.
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Agriculture : Fisheries : Report
For PRELIMS go through the important terminologies mentioned below. Take a note in your Prelims book.
For MAINS go through potential threats and challenges faced in fisheries management . This is an important issue for this year . Let us dive in !
Status of Stocks 2019
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration(NOAA) U.S.A .
- The annual Status of Stocks report highlight the goal of maximizing fishing opportunities while ensuring the sustainability of fisheries and fishing communities that support the American economy.
- Through the combined efforts of NOAA Fisheries, the eight regional fishery management councils, and other partners, the number of stocks on the overfishing list reached an all-time low.
IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGIES USED
- MAXIMUM SUSTAINABLE YIELD (MSY): The largest long-term average catch that can be taken from a stock under prevailing environmental and fishery conditions.
- OVERFISHED : A stock having a population size that is too low and that jeopardizes the stock’s ability to produce its MSY.
- REBUILT : A stock that was previously overfished and that has increased in abundance to the target population size that supports its MSY.
- The two fish stocks that were rebuilt in 2019 were Southern California cowcod and American plaice.
- A rebuilding plan is prepared by the NOAA as and when the stock becomes overfished.
- The approach also keeps fishermen and waterfronts working while stocks rebuild.
- Individual fishing quotas in the trawl fishery.
- Use of recreational fishing gear that improved survival rates of discarded cowcod.
- Collaboration between fishermen, environmental groups, fisheries managers, and others leading to higher catch levels of cowcod.
The Southern California cowcod | American plaice.
Photo Source: NOAA
- The American plaice, on the other hand, was rebuilt after 15 years under a rebuilding plan.
- During this time, the stock size more than tripled and according to NOAA,.
- This will result in a 96 per cent increase in catch levels in 2020 compared to 2019.
CHALLENGES IN FISHERY MANAGEMENT
- The added overfished stocks point to the increase environmental change, habitat degradation and international fishing.
- The warm water conditions, for example, affected the growth and reproduction of the cold-water Saint Matthew Island blue king crab.
- For the reason, the stock has never been subject to overfishing and directed fishing for this crab has been prohibited since 2016.
- Among the species added in the overfished list in 2019 is the Pacific sardine.
- While its commercial fishing has been banned since 2015, ocean conditions led to years of poor reproduction reduced its population to pretty low levels.
- NOAA Fisheries is responsible for ocean resources and their habitat in USA.
- NOAA provide vital services for the nation: productive and sustainable fisheries, safe sources of seafood, the recovery and conservation of protected resources, and healthy ecosystems.
- NOAA Fisheries works in partnership with Regional Fishery Management Councils to assess and predict the status of fish stocks.
- Commercial and recreational saltwater fishing generates more sales and employment.
- Ending overfishing and rebuilding stocks aims build a stronger economy, coastal communities and marine ecosystems and providing sustainable seafood for any nation.