National Rurban Mission (NRuM)|UPSC|PRELIMS|2020
Large parts of rural areas in the country are not stand-alone settlements but part of a cluster of settlements, which are relatively proximate to each other.
These clusters typically illustrate potential for growth, have economic drivers and derive locational and competitive advantages.
These clusters once developed can then be classified as ‘Rurban’.
Government of India, has launched the Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM), aimed at developing such rural areas by provisioning of economic, social and physical infrastructure facilities.
The Mission was launched on 21st February, 2016.
These clusters would be strengthened with the required amenities, for which it is proposed that resources be mobilized through convergence of various schemes of the Government, over and above which a Critical Gap Funding (CGF) would be provided under this Mission, for focused development of these clusters.
IN DEPTH ANALYSIS:
“Development of a cluster of villages that preserve and nurture the essence of rural community life with focus on equity and inclusiveness without compromising with the facilities perceived to be essentially urban in nature, thus creating a cluster of “Rurban Villages”.
The objective is to stimulate local economic development, enhance basic services, and create well planned Rurban clusters.
- Bridging the gap of rural-urban divide: economic, technological and those related to facilities and services.
- Stimulating local economic development with emphasis on reduction of poverty and unemployment in rural areas.
- Spreading development in the region.
- Attracting investment in rural areas.
As far as practicable, clusters of villages would follow administrative convergence units of Gram Panchayats and shall be within a single block/tehsil for administrative convenience.
There will be two categories of clusters under NRuM: Non-Tribal and Tribal
While selecting the Rurban cluster the State may identify a large village/gram panchayat that are growth centers with resources available in the area that could potentially lead the economic transformation of the region.
These growth centers could also be block headquarter villages or census towns.
The clusters could then be formed by identifying geographically contiguous villages/gram panchayats within a radius of 5–10 km (or radius appropriate to the population density and geography of the region) around the identified growth center.
For selection of Non- Tribal clusters, the Ministry would provide a list of leading sub districts to each State, within which the clusters could be identified.
The selection of these sub districts by the Ministry would be based on parameters such as
- Decadal Growth in Rural Population
- Decadal Growth in Non-Farm work force participation
- Presence of Economic Clusters
- Presence of places of Tourism and Pilgrimage significance.
- Proximity to Transport Corridors.
For identification of the tribal clusters, the Ministry would select the leading sub districts falling within the top 100 tribal districts of the country, based on the Scheduled Tribes population.
The selection of these sub districts would be based on parameters such as
- Decadal growth in Tribal Population
- Current Tribal Literacy Rate
- Decadal growth in Non- Farm Work force participation
- Decadal growth in Rural Population and
- Presence of Economic Clusters.
COMPONENTS OF RURBAN MISSION
Small scale enterprises in the clusters could be more successful ventures with the help of this training.
AGRO-PROCESSING, AGRI-SERVICES, STORAGE, AND WAREHOUSING
Under Rurban Mission lot of facilities are provided to farmers which includes; techniques to have more yield of crops, distribution of healthy seeds, well-structured irrigation plants and adequate supply of pests control spray or insecticides, etc.
Under this mission, the government has planned to do a sanitation drive for a healthier and cleaner environment for the people living in these rural areas.
SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Various waste management plants are being set up in the clusters to have a safe and disease-free environment, as waste and stagnant dirty water borne many harmful diseases.
FULLY EQUIPPED MOBILE HEALTH UNIT
Health care facilities are inadequate in a rural community; residents do not get proper medication and therefore fall ill. Under the Rurban Mission, various mobile health care units are being installed to provide proper health measures and check-ups for the villagers.
UPGRADING SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION FACILITIES
Education is a tool to curb inequality. As this proverb has some facts, schemes are being made to enhance the literacy rate in villages. Education is given so much priority now as it is a way to move further and get success. Educational institutions are being built in remote areas to provide children access to education.
Street lights are also installed under this mission to have an easy and safe way for the commuters. These are set up for the easiness of the drivers and daily travelers.
INTER-VILLAGE ROAD CONNECTIVITY
For the transportation of goods from one village to another and villagers who commute to the other village for work and to meet their folks, roads are built to lessen the commuting time.
PROVISION OF PIPED WATER SUPPLY
Clean and piped water is provided to the villagers for better health. Villagers consume intoxicated water of the river and then get severe diseases.
Under Rurban Mission, a public transport facility is put forward for the villagers to have easy and safe travel.
LPG GAS CONNECTIONS
This mission has invigorated gas connections in the villages to reduce the food scarcity and to give a pollution free environment for the residents of the village.
Nowadays, the digital world has taken development to another level. And to make this development exist in the cluster of villages, various camps are organized to teach villagers the use of smartphones and the internet, transaction of rupees, internet banking, and what not! Wi-Fi is being installed in schools and offices to have smooth internet surfing.
CITIZEN SERVICE CENTERS
Self Help Groups and NGOs are delivering services to the residents of these villages. Ration and other daily requirements are provided to the villagers for free. These citizen service centers also improvise the living conditions of people by informing them about the measures and options to lead a good and healthy lifestyle.