National Fisheries Policy 2020 | UPSC
Government has decided for introducing a comprehensive and integrated ‘National Fisheries Policy, 2020
WHY IN NEWS:
Hot from PIB !
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Agriculture : Fisheries
For PRELIMS go through the factual information related to fisheries in this article like fisheries impact on GDP , GVA.
For MAINS this can be a important MAINS question this year ! Lot of updates and yes here it is . Let us dive in !
This will be by integrating:
- National Policy on Marine Fisheries, 2017 (NPMF), the
- Draft National Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy (NIFAP) and the
- Draft National Mariculture Policy (NMP) along with the elements of Post Harvest.
NATIONAL FISHERIES POLICY 2020
- The Indian fisheries sector is set in a unique and diverse set of resources .
- It ranges from the pristine waters of the Himalayas to the sprawling Indian Ocean.
- With growing population and the increasing demand for fish protein, the need for sustainable development of aquatic resources is now felt much more than ever before.
- Fisheries are an important source of food, nutrition, employment and income in India.
- The sector provides livelihoods to about 16 million fishers and fish farmers at the primary level and almost twice the number along the value chain.
- The sector has immense potential to more than double the fishers and fish farmers’ incomes, as envisioned by the government.
- Commencing as a purely traditional activity, fisheries have now transformed in to a commercial enterprise.
- The share of fisheries sector in the total GDP (at current prices) increased from 0.40% in 1950-51 to 1.03% in 2017-18.
- The sector has been one of the major contributors of foreign exchange earnings with India being one of the leading seafood exporting nations in the world.
- The marine exports stand at about 5% of total exports of India and constitute 19.23 % of Agri-exports (2017-18).
- The total fisheries potential of India has been estimated at 22.31 million metric tons (in 2018).
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE IN INDIA
- Fisheries being a State subject, the States play a pivotal role in fisheries governance.
- Inland Fisheries are fully managed by State Governments.
- Coastal States/UTs are responsible for development and regulation of fisheries in the sea waters inside the 12 nautical mile (22 km) territorial limit.
- Government of India is responsible for the development, management and regulation of fisheries in the EEZ waters beyond 12 nautical miles and up to 200 nautical miles (370 km).
CONSTRAINTS IN THE GROWTH OF FISHERIES SECTOR
- LIMITED SCOPE FOR EXPANSION : Due to weak regulation, inefficient management and prevalence of traditional fishing practices.
- INADEQUATE INFRASTRUCTURE : Especially fishing harbours, landing centers, cold chain and distribution systems, poor processing and value addition, wastage, traceability and certification etc.
- INLAND FISHERIES : Seasonal nature of fishing operations, depleted stocks in natural waters, lease rights, use of technology for harvesting coupled with low capital infusion are limiting factors.
- Low input culture system
- Lack of diversity in culture practices
- Increased incidents of disease
- Low levels of investment
- Inadequate infrastructure for pre-production, production etc.
- Post-harvest and processing facilities
- Low adoption of technologies and shortage of skilled manpower in aquaculture and extension services.
- To develop an ecologically healthy, economically viable and socially inclusive fisheries sector.
- To provides food and nutritional security to the country in a sustainable and responsible manner.
- Fisheries resources are to be developed, managed, regulated and conserved responsibly.
- JUDICIOUS USE : Optimally harness the capture and culture fisheries potential of the country by enhancing fish production and productivity in a responsible and sustainable manner.
- A ROBUST MANAGEMENT : A regulatory framework with necessary legal backing for effective fisheries resource management through an Ecosystem Approach of Fisheries (EAF) management .
- MODERNIZE : Rationalize (infuse science and technology) and diversify fishing practices in oceans and seas with sustainability of resources as the core philosophy.
- PROMOTE INLAND FISHERIES : Standardized SoP’s, inputs and farming systems for sustainable and responsible aquaculture and capture fisheries.
- CONSERVATION : Manage native fish genetic stocks and associated habitats and ecosystem.
- VALUE CHAIN : Strengthen and modernize value chain including creation of fisheries infrastructure to increase shelf life, reduction of post-harvest losses and production of value added products.
- EXPORTS : Market, trade and export of globally competitive fish and value-added fish products benchmarked with global standards.
- INSTITUTIONAL CREDIT : Access to institutional credit as priority lending on the lines of crop sector especially to small and marginal fishers and fish farmers and unemployed youth.
- PARTNERSHIPS : Promote community partnerships, private participation and effective cooperative movement in fisheries sector.
- EMPLOYMENT : Generate gainful employment and entrepreneurship opportunities along the value chain leading to higher income of fishers and fish farmers.
- FOOD SECURITY : Ensure food and nutritional security by increasing the per capita availability of safe, affordable and quality fish.
- COMMITTEE : A State level Inter-departmental Coordination Committee for Fisheries will be formed under the Chairmanship of the Agriculture Production Commissioner .
- FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANS : The Centre will formulate ‘Fisheries Management Plans’ (FMPs) for scientific management and regulation of marine fisheries resources.
- INTEGRATED FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT PLAN : The government will prepare and implement ‘Integrated Fisheries Development Plan’ for Islands to enhance the share in their economy.
- FISHERIES SPATIAL PLANS : The State governments will prepare Fisheries Spatial Plans (MSP) with central government for data management, analysis, modelling and decision making.
- CAPACITY APPRAISAL FRAMEWORK : A capacity appraisal framework will enable feasibility of undertaking sea ranching for rebuilding stocks without altering the natural genetic diversity.
- UPDATED ‘FISHERIES ACT’ : In inland open waters preventing use of destructive gears, killing of juveniles and destructive fishing, etc., will be strictly adhered through enactment of updated ‘Fisheries Act’ .
- CLUSTER APPROACH : Promotion of cluster approach as a key strategy for focused and concentrated development of aquaculture .
- SETTING UP OF PROTOCOLS : Standards for fish and fishery products in compliance with international food safety standards including HACCP, promoting safe food and sustainable trade.
- PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS : Encouraging Promoting Public Private Partnerships (PPPS) to leverage private sector investments in fisheries sector.
- Indian fisheries are now set in a globalized world.
- The global agenda on fisheries is guided by a set of binding and non-binding instruments that concern both fisheries and environmental aspects.
- The global community has recognized Voluntary Guidelines on Sustainable Small-scale Fisheries (VG-SSF).
- The main objectives of the VGSSF Guidelines are expected to be achieved through the promotion of a human rights based approach .
- It is focussed on context of food security and poverty eradication, by empowering small-scale fishing communities.
- MEETING DEADLINE : With interventions envisaged under the policy, the following outcome is expected by the year 2030.
- SUPPORT : Through a National Policy for management, regulation and development of resources through standards; research, extension, and training.
- COOPERATION : Enhanced cooperation among various stakeholders as well as States and Center for unified planning to achieve common goals.
- AVAILABILITY OF NETWORK : From field to central level for monitoring, regulation of operations and data mining to ascertain the status of various resources and activities
- TECHNOLOGY INFUSION : Improvement of environment and disease control, breeding, seed rearing, feed production and culture systems.
- STRENGTHENED PRODUCTION : Especially hatcheries, nurseries, feed mills, breeding & multiplication centers and quarantine facilities.
- FARMERS INCOME : Creation of additional post-harvest capacities through cold-chain facilities, processing & value addition will lead to reduction in wastage to <10% level .
- MARKET INTERVENTIONS : To address resource scarcity and price signals both in national and international markets.
- NEW INITIATIVES : In the form of clusters, zoning, certification, labelling and branding, etc.will improve product acceptability for export up to 1 lakh crores.
- EMPOWERMENT : Farmers and fish workers to choose, about farming species, practice and sale of produce to get better income and amenities.
MEASUREMENT OF IMPACT
The implementation and impact assessment of the policy will be reviewed periodically on following parameters.
- EXTENT OF INTERVENTIONS : In terms of incentives and support measures envisaged in the in the policy.
- INVESTMENT : Increase in the investment in different segments of supply chain and farming infrastructure.
- GVA : Increase in output and contribution of fisheries sector in GVA.
- LOSSES : Extent of reduction in post -harvest losses and spoilage.
- INCOME COMPARISON : Better farm gate price to farmers enabling increase in farm incomes.
- EXPORTS : Increase in export of sea food products.
The National Fisheries Policy 2020 would offer a strategized way forward to develop, harness, manage and regulate capture and culture fisheries in a responsible and sustainable manner.
The Policy will ensure a productive integration with other economic sectors, such as agriculture,coastal area development and eco-tourism, to meet the goals of the ‘Blue Economy’.