Kawasaki Disease | UPSC
ICMR D-G is wrong;Kawasaki disease in children post-COVID has been reported in India
WHY IN NEWS:
Shut down schools if positivity rate goes up to more than 5 per cent: IAP chief
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health:Diseases
For PRELIMS go through the cause , symptoms and the science behind this disease .
For MAINS what are the issues related with diagnosis of a disease in India ? Let us dive in !
- There is much documentary and empirical evidence that has been reported from hospitals in Chennai, Mumbai, Pune, New Delhi and Bengaluru.
REOPENING OF SCHOOLS
- As schools reopened in India, this could it lead to a spurt in novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children (0-18 years).
- And, in the recovery phase of the disease, less than 1 per cent in the world over have shown to be affected by either Kawasaki Disease (KD).
- This (KD or MIS-C) has been described with COVID-19 in different parts of the world.
COVID-19 AND KAWASAKI DISEASE
- KD or MIS-C are the results of a ‘cytokine storm’ in children, usually after one month of recovery from COVID-19.
- But if they become a ‘storm’, they start destroying body tissues along with killing the virus.
- If the storm affects all the major systems including kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, heart, etc, it is referred to as ‘multisystem syndrome’.
- If it attacks blood carrying vessels, it results in KD.
Kawasaki disease causes swelling (inflammation) in the walls of medium-sized arteries throughout the body.
- It primarily affects children.
- The inflammation tends to affect the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle.
Kawasaki Disease | UPSC
WHAT IS KAWASAKI DISEASE?
- Kawasaki disease is an illness that causes blood vessels to become inflamed, almost always in young children.
- It’s one of the leading causes of heart disease in kids.
- Most children recover without any problems.
- Kawasaki disease is sometimes called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome because it also affects glands that swell during an infection (lymph nodes).
CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS
- The inflammation of Kawasaki disease can damage a child’s coronary arteries, which carry blood to their heart.
- Scientists haven’t found an exact cause for Kawasaki disease.
- It might be linked to genes, viruses, bacteria, and other things in the world around a child, such as chemicals and irritants.
- Kids are more likely to get it in the winter and spring.
Other things can raise a child’s risk of Kawasaki disease, including:
- AGE : It usually affects children who are 5 or younger.
- SEX : Boys are 1.5 times more likely to get it than girls.
- ETHNICITY : Children of Asian descent are more likely to have Kawasaki disease.
SYMPTOMS OF KAWASAKI DISEASE
- High fever (above 101 F) that lasts more than 5 days.
- It won’t go down even if a child takes medication that usually works on fever.
- Swelling and redness in hands and bottoms of feet
- Red eyes
- Swollen glands, especially in the neck
- Irritated throat, mouth, and lips
- Swollen, bright red “strawberry tongue”
- Joint pain
- Belly pain
- Stomach trouble, such as diarrhea and vomiting
- Peeling skin on hands and feet
- Symptoms tend to go away slowly in the third phase.
- It might last as long as 8 weeks.
- A number of theories link the disease to bacteria, viruses or other environmental factors, but none has been proved.
- Certain genes may make your child more likely to get Kawasaki disease.
- Kawasaki disease is a leading cause of acquired heart disease in children.
- However, with effective treatment, only a few children have lasting damage.
Heart complications include:
- Inflammation of blood vessels, usually the coronary arteries, that supply blood to the heart
- Heart valve problems
- Inflammation of the coronary arteries can lead to weakening and bulging of the artery wall (aneurysm).
- For a very small percentage of children who develop coronary artery problems, Kawasaki disease can cause death, even with treatment.
- Scientist say that in the absence of standardised uniform international diagnostic guidelines there is less data around KD.
- They could also have been over-diagnosing similar presentations of KD or toxic shock syndromes such as MIS-C.
SOURCES: DownToEarth | Kawasaki Disease | UPSC