Human Cost of Disasters 2000-2019 Report | UPSC

Human Cost of Disasters 2000-2019 Report | UPSC

      HEADLINES:

‘Climate change to blame for doubling of disasters’-Human Cost of Disasters 2000-2019 Report

      WHY IN NEWS:

UNDRR report published to mark the International Day for Disaster Risk Reduction on October 13, 2020,

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Report : Disaster Management

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS this is an important report . We have analysed it in depth . Go through publishers , important actions , recommendations and comparisons.

For MAINS go through Sendai Framework and its relevance with the report . Take a pen and paper and make notes on disaster this time .

      ISSUE: 

The report confirms how extreme weather events have come to dominate the disaster landscape in the 21st century.

HUMAN COST OF DISASTERS 2000-2019 REPORT

TITLE

Human Cost of Disasters 2000-2019 Report -An overview of the last 20 years (2000-2019)

PUBLISHED BY

  • UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction 
  • The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED)
  • EMDAT : CRED’s Emergency Events Database (EMDAT) contains more than 24,000 technological and natural hazard-related disasters from 1900 to the present day.

OVERVIEW

  • UNDRR report published to mark the International Day for Disaster Risk Reduction on October 13, 2020.
  • The statistics in this report are from the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) maintained by CRED.

CRED records disasters :

  • In which have killed ten or more people
  • Affected 100 or more people
  • Resulted in a declared state of emergency
  • Or a call for international assistance.

DISASTERS FROM 2000 TO 2019

  • In the period 2000 to 2019, there were 7,348 major recorded disaster events claiming 1.23 million lives.

This has affecting 4.2 billion people resulting in approximately US$2.97 trillion in global economic losses.
 

  • This is a sharp increase over the previous twenty years.

DISASTERS FROM 1980 TO 1999

  • Between 1980 and 1999, 4,212 disasters were linked to natural hazards worldwide claiming approximately 1.19 million lives.
  • This has affected 3.25 billion people resulting in approximately US$1.63 trillion in economic losses.
  • Much of the difference is explained by a rise in climate-related disasters including extreme weather events.

“The Human Cost of Disasters 2000-2019” also records drought, wildfires and extreme temperature events.

REPORT ANALYSIS

Hazards only become disasters when human lives are lost, and livelihoods damaged or destroyed.

1.DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN THE 21 ST CENTURY

  • Over the last twenty years, 7,348 disaster events 1 were recorded worldwide by EM-DAT.

Human Cost of Disasters 2000-2019 Report | UPSC

 Disaster Impacts: 1980-1999 vs. 2000-2019.| CREDIT : UNDRR.ORG

  • Disasters claimed approximately 1.23 million lives, an average of 60,000 per annum, and affected a total of over 4 billion people.
  • Additionally, disasters led to approximately US$ 2.97 trillion 2 in economic losses worldwide.

Human Cost of Disasters 2000-2019 Report

CREDIT : UNDRR.ORG

  • This is clear evidence that in a world where the global average temperature in 2019 was 1.1˚C above the preindustrial period.

The impacts was felt; extreme weather events including heatwaves, droughts, flooding, winter storms, hurricanes and wildfires.

KEY POINTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • A temperature increase of 3°C of the global climate is estimated to increase the high impact natural hazard events across the world.
  • This could render current national and local strategies for disaster risk reduction no longer useful in many countries.

Shifting rainfall patterns and greater variability in precipitation poses a risk to the 70% of global agriculture that is rain-fed.

  • COVID-19 demonstrates the need for a systemic, multi- hazard approach in an increasingly globalized and interconnected world.
  • Public and private investment in disaster risk prevention can step up to create disaster resilient societies.

2.CLASSIFYING NATURAL HAZARDS BY DISASTER TYPE

Human Cost of Disasters 2000-2019 Report

This report focuses on geophysical, hydrological, meteorological and climatological disasters | CREDIT : UNDRR.ORG

DISASTERS 2000-2019

In total, between 2000 and 2019, there were 3,068 disaster events in Asia, followed by the 1,756 events in the Americas and 1,192 events in Africa.

  • The high frequency and impact of disasters in Asia is largely due to the size of the continent and landscapes .
  • These represents a high risk of natural hazards, such as river basins, flood plains, and seismic fault lines.

Highest Disasters

TOTAL NUMBER OF DISASTERS | CREDIT : UNDRR.ORG

SENDAI FRAMEWORK

  • The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement.

It recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk.

  • It states- responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders .
  • This includes local governments, the private sector, the scientific community and NGOs.
  • It aims for a substantial reduction in disaster losses resulting from both man-made and natural hazards.

The Sendai Framework’s seven Targets focus on substantial reductions in:

(a) Disaster mortality

(b)Number of affected people

(c) Direct economic losses and

(d) Reducing damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services.

(e) National and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020,

(f) Enhanced cooperation to developing countries, and

(g) A substantial increase in multi-hazard early warning systems, disaster risk information and assessments.

  • Focused studies on disaster risk communication would help understand how residents interpret warnings.
  • This would aid in steering communication strategies in the most effective forms in various contexts.

Maximum Extreme Events

CREDIT : UNDRR.ORG

  • Better flood control is one “low-hanging fruit” in policy terms .
  • Since affordable and effective technologies already exist, including dams, dykes, mobile dykes and improved early warning systems.

3.HUMAN COST OF DISASTERS

  • The human cost of disasters depends on multiple factors, including the type of hazard, its location, duration and the size .

HUMAN COST OF DISASTERS

CREDIT : UNDRR.ORG

  • The average number of deaths worldwide from 2000 to 2019 was approximately 60,000 deaths per year.
  • Since 2010 there have been no mega-disasters and no single year with over 35,000 deaths.

4.THE IMPACT OF MEGA DISASTER

Three mega disasters occurred in the period 2000-2019:

  • The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
  • The 2008 Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar
  • The 2010 Haiti earthquake.

TEN DEADLIEST DISASTER

CREDIT : UNDRR.ORG

  • There are numerous proven life-saving measures for storm impacts, such as cyclone shelters, wind-resistant buildings etc.

Effective deployment of early warning systems have the potential to protect vulnerable populations worldwide .

  • Earthquakes and tsunamis were the deadliest form of disasters accounting for 58% of total deaths.
  • Drought affects Africa more than any other continent.

5.DISASTERS & NATIONAL INCOME

  • Low-income countries account for 23% of total disaster deaths despite accounting for less than 10% of the world’s population.

Low income countries

CREDIT : UNDRR.ORG

  • Despite accounting for most the world’s economic losses, high-income countries have the lowest level of losses as a percentage of GDP .

Contrastingly, low-income countries had the highest level of losses compared to GDP (0.61%), 3x higher than high-income countries.

  • Priority should also be given to a review of existing methodologies to estimate losses and the development of realistic, standard operational methods.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

UNDER-REPORTED ECONOMIC LOSSES

  • There remains a gap in data on economic losses from disasters worldwide.
  • From 2000 to 2019, only 35% of all disaster events reported any figures for economic losses.

Records are particularly incomplete from Africa and South Asia, as only 23% of all events in South Asia reported losses.

  • Concerning data gaps by disaster type, storms had the highest percentage of events with reported losses (53%).
  • In contrast only 28% of droughts, 12% of landslides, and 9% of extreme temperature events recorded any losses.
  • Reporting of economic losses should be improved, particularly for lower-income countries.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB | Human Cost of Disasters 2000-2019 Report | UPSC

 

DISCOVER MORE : REPORTS

If you liked this article, then please subscribe to our YouTube Channel for Daily Current Affairs , Editorial Analysis & Answer writing video tutorials. You can also find us on Twitter and Facebook.

0 Shares:
You May Also Like