Global Nutrition Report 2020 Analysis | UPSC
Re-imagining food systems crucial for climate, economic resilience: Nutrition report
WHY IN NEWS:
Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic pushes government to act on reforms of food systems with urgency
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 1:3:Malnutrition : Report
For PRELIMS keep an eye on the targets missed in Global Nutritional Report 2020 !
For MAINS this is a wonderful article ! The article mentions all the key point you need to sum up for Smart Climate Resilient Agricultural Practices and sustainable well being for all .
WHO PUBLISHES AND SINCE WHEN ?
- The GNR is an annual publication and the first series was published in 2014.
- It is delivered by an Independent Expert Group and guided at a strategic level by a Stakeholder Group, whose members also review the Report.
GLOBAL NUTRITION TARGETS MISSED !
- Reduce stunting by 40% in children under 5.
- Reduce the prevalence of anemia by 50% among women in the age group of 19-49 years.
- Ensure 30% reduction in low-birth weight.
- Ensure no increase in childhood overweight.
- Reduce and maintain childhood wasting to less than 5%.
- Increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months up to at least 50%.
IN DEPTH ANALYSIS OF THE REPORT :
- Food systems must be inclusive, local and diverse to address food security and malnutrition and build economic and climate resilience.
- The report insisted on policy changes and financial support as critical measures to ensure food systems improve the well-being of the marginalised people.
- They also include the outputs of such activities, including socio-economic and environmental outcomes.
- These components are interdependent and “collectively influence diets and broader outcomes including nutrition and health”,
- Poor health and nutrition made people vulnerable to the virus (SARS-CoV-2)
- Livelihoods, food security and the economy were stretched as reverse migration.
- Economic resilience investments in food systems, along with other targeted nutrition initiatives.
MAINSTREAMING MALNUTRITION THROUGH FOOD SYSTEMS
- Malnutrition is a big challenge for low- and middle- income countries where the prevalence of stunting in children below five is 40 per cent or above.
- No country is on course to meet the eight nutrition targets set globally.
- It attributed child malnutrition as the biggest risk factor keeping India from fulfilling all its child mortality rate.
- A need to recalibrate food systems away from staples like wheat and rice towards non-staples like vegetables, fruits, fish, nuts etc and make them available to people.
- “Agricultural policy is heavily biased towards improving staple-grain productivity, especially rice, wheat and maize, while dietary diversity is not adequately addressed.
- “More incentives towards millets, and non-staples will make production of healthy food attractive to producers .
BUILDING ECONOMIC RESILIENCE
- Small farm holders — who usually do not have access to big value chains — will be critical in improving food systems.
- Around 80 per cent cultivators in India are small or marginal farmers who practiced rain-fed and self-subsistence agriculture,
- Primary and secondary level processing close to the farms that can generate local livelihoods and employment,”.
- Policy changes should be geared towards procurement of nutritious and climate-resilient crops like sorghum and millets.
- Increasing their consumption through public food distribution schemes and creating awareness on the health benefits of these crops.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENVIRONMENT SUSTAINABILITY
- Animal products are the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions.
- Agriculture in India contributed 16 per cent of total carbon dioxide equivalent emissions.
- A significant amount of these emissions emanated from methane and nitrogen oxide that came from livestock and application of fertilisers.
- Localised chains will ensure fresh-food delivery to improve access to healthy food among disadvantaged groups and reduce inequities in diets, according to the report.
- Experts said such value chains — that thrive on local produce — also keep prices in check and ensure affordability.
- “Investments in technology that reduce emissions through livestock need to be made.
- Healthy food systems need to be weaned away from inorganic chemical-based applications in a gradual and phased manner,”
- Climate-resilient and less water intensive crops should be incentivised and popularised among farmers and consumers alike.
- Experts point out that steps taken to address climate change spin towards better incomes and nutrition security.