Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2020 | UPSC
2020 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
WHY IN NEWS:
The 2020 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) data and publication “Charting pathways out of multidimensional poverty: Achieving the SDGs” was released on 16 July 2020.
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Index : Reports
For PRELIMS remember publishers , aim and the way it is calculated . Make simple notes . That will serve the purpose on a longer run.
For MAINS go through the limitations .
2020 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
- Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative at the University of Oxford
- Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme.
WHAT DOES THE MPI MEASURE?
- MPI presents estimates for 107 developing countries (77% of the world total).
- The MPI identifies overlapping deprivations that people experience across the same three dimensions i.e health, education and standard of living (HDI).
- We can also estimate the average number of deprivations each poor person experiences at the same time.
- This report focuses on how multidimensional poverty has declined.
- It provides a comprehensive picture of global trends in multidimensional poverty.
The MPI looks beyond income to understand how people experience poverty in multiple and simultaneous ways.
THREE KEY DIMENSIONS
- Education and
- Standard of living( comprising 10 indicators).
- The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) identifies multiple deprivations at the household.
- It uses micro data from household surveys.
- The MPI offers a valuable complement to income-based poverty measures.
- These data are then aggregated into the national measure of poverty.
- The MPI reflects both the incidence of multidimensional deprivation (a headcount of those in multidimensional poverty) and its intensity (the average deprivation score experienced by poor people).
- Across 107 developing countries, 1.3 billion people—22 percent—live in multidimensional poverty.
- One in three children is poor compared with one in six adults.
- About 84.3 percent of multidimensionally poor people live in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia .
- 67 percent of multidimensionally poor people are in middle-income countries.
- 107 million multidimensionally poor people are age 60 or older.
- 65 countries reduced their global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) value .
INDIA HALVED THE MPI VALUE(2005-2019)
- Ten countries, including China, came close to halving their MPI value.
- In nearly a third of the countries studied, either there was no reduction in multidimensional poverty for children, or the MPI value
THE COUNTRIES WITH THE FASTEST REDUCTION IN MPI VALUE
- But 18 countries, including some of the poorest, were off track.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND MPI
- Of the 1.3 billion multidimensionally poor people, 82.3 percent are deprived in at least five indicators simultaneously.
- 71 percent of the 5.9 billion people covered experience at least one deprivation.
- Correlation between the incidence of multidimensional poverty and the coverage of three doses of the diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP3) vaccine.
- Some of the poorest countries (Central African Republic, Chad, Guinea, South Sudan) vaccinate less than half of surviving infants with the DTP3 vaccine.
- In Nigeria, which has one of the lowest percentages of DTP3 coverage globally.
- Multidimensionally poor people have less access to vaccinations.
- Sub-Saharan African countries have the highest percentages of people who are deprived in years of schooling.
- 84.2 percent of multidimensionally poor people live in rural areas, where they are more vulnerable to environmental shocks.
- 20.4 percent of people lack access to clean cooking fuel.
- Agricultural employment may not help reduce poverty in these countries without additional pro-poor policy interventions.
WHAT MAKES AN INDIVIDUAL MULTIDIMENSIONALLY POOR?
- One deprivation alone may not represent poverty.
- The MPI requires a person to be deprived in multiple indicators at the same time.
- Persons who are vulnerable in one fifth or more but less than one third of the weighted indicators is subjected to MPI.
- Those who are deprived in one half or more are considered living in severe multidimensional poverty.
THE MPI AND 2030 AGENDA?
The indicators for the 2010 MPI were drawn from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
ORIGINAL MPI INDICATORS
- Nutrition (MDG 1)
- Child mortality (MDG 4)
- Access to drinking water (MDG 7)
- Access to sanitation facility (MDG 7) and
- Use of an improved source of cooking fuel (MDG 9).
WHAT ARE THE MAIN LIMITATIONS OF THE MPI?
The MPI has some drawbacks, due mainly to data constraints.
- The indicators may not reflect capabilities but instead reflect outputs (such as years of schooling) or inputs (such as cooking fuel).
- In some cases we find careful judgments were needed to address data that was not collected.
- Intra-household inequalities may be severe, but these could not be captured.
- While the MPI goes well beyond a headcount ratio to include the intensity of poverty, it does not measure inequality among the poor.
- Also, decompositions by groups can be used to reveal group-based inequalities.
- The estimates presented are mostly based on publicly available data.
- The data cover various years between 2008 and 2019, which limits direct cross-country comparability.