Frustum Shaped Porous Vessels for Sub-surface Irrigation | UPSC Frustum Shaped Porous Vessels for Sub-surface Irrigation | UPSC

      HEADLINES:

New irrigation model to help desert villagers

      WHY IN NEWS:

Experiments have indicated a higher yield of farm produce by using the process

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Agriculture : Irrigation

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS it is important to understand the concept of MATKA IRRIGATION . It is not a new concept as it has been practised since ages . Keep an eye on the principle and working of this irrigation method.

For MAINS go through the significance of the irrigation method and compare it with traditional drip irrigation . Let us dive in !

      ISSUE: 

A new model of minor irrigation through sub-surface porous vessels (SSPV) being developed here is set to benefit the farmers with small land holdings in the villages of the Thar desert.

Frustum Shaped Porous Vessels for Sub-surface Irrigation | UPSC

Fig. 1 Pitcher or Matka Removal Fig. 2 Frustum Shaped SSPV Removal

FRUSTUM SHAPED POROUS VESSELS FOR SUB-SURFACE IRRIGATION

OVERVIEW

  • Experiments have indicated a higher yield of farm produce.
  • Experiment also saw improvement in the nutrient value of soil after the installation of frustum-shaped vessels at the mounds formed on land.

THE PROJECT

  • The initiative, supported by Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi‘s Rural Technology Action Group, was taken up earlier this year.

AIM

To address the issues of non-availability of food material, malnutrition among children and the villagers’ inability to earn livelihood in the cities.

PRINCIPLE

  • The model has effectively modified watering by pitchers and competes with drip irrigation.
  • The local villagers have created heaped piles of earth and are growing vegetables such as brinjal, tomato, spinach and lady’s fingers with the new model.(Fig.1)

A SSPV is made of location-specific clay and sawdust, mixed in a proportion to suit the desert sand, press-formed to the frustum shape.

  • Then it is baked at a temperature of 750-800 degree Celsius with the addition of a carbon layer in its structure.
  • A team of local potters has been identified in Jodhpur for manufacturing the vessels in the open-hearth furnaces at their households.
  • The SSPVs, with the storage of 8 to 9 litres of water, supplies it to a radius of land measuring 1.25 metres.

BACKGROUND

  • In India, Matka irrigation or pitcher irrigation was and is practiced from ages.
  • Due to its spheroid shape, its insertion and extraction from the soil is associated with excessive drudgery and soil disturbance.

Sub-surface Irrigation

The Frustum shape of a porous vessel helps to avoid the above said disadvantages. Fig. 3 SSPV Moulding Press Machine Fig. 4 Shaped Frustum SSPV Composite

SALIENT FEATURES

  • Less soil disturbance while re-inserting and extraction from soils.

Due to its frustum shape and compositional variation freedom, distinct porosities of SSPVs can be manufactured which can help in different functions.

EXAMPLE
Saline soil remediation, root medication, use as a drainage management tool for an agricultural farm .

  • Mechanized production of frustum shapes is easy using a SSPV Moulding Press Machine.

AREA OF THE PROJECT

  • Rural Manufacturing
  • Horticulture farming
  • Sub-Surface Irrigation
  • Potter (Kumhar) Skilling
  • Drainage Management
  • Soil Remediation.

CHALLENGES IN MATKA IRRIGATION

  • Spheroid shape, its insertion and extraction from the soil is associated with excessive drudgery.
  • Conservation type agriculture becomes impossible due to soil disturbance.

Due to matka’s spheroid shape, structural uniformity cannot be maintained because of controlled variation in porosity requirements. 

  • Mechanized manufacturing of the spheroidal shaped objects with uniform thickness, controlled porosity and ceramic properties can only be an outcome of high end technology.

BENEFITS

  • Improved local industry – academia relations.

Better rural penetration, and community based advancement in manufacturing.
 

  • Dedicated manufacturers, potters, farmers and organic fruit and vegetable market contributors.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Tentative Cost of Manual SSPV Moulding Machine is around Rs. 47,500.
  • Tentative Cost of the SSPV Vessels is around Rs. 180
     SOURCES:  THE HINDU | Frustum Shaped Porous Vessels for Sub-surface Irrigation | UPSC

 

DISCOVER MORE : GENERAL STUDIES-III

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