Frustum Shaped Porous Vessels for Sub-surface Irrigation | UPSC
New irrigation model to help desert villagers
WHY IN NEWS:
Experiments have indicated a higher yield of farm produce by using the process
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Agriculture : Irrigation
For PRELIMS it is important to understand the concept of MATKA IRRIGATION . It is not a new concept as it has been practised since ages . Keep an eye on the principle and working of this irrigation method.
For MAINS go through the significance of the irrigation method and compare it with traditional drip irrigation . Let us dive in !
Fig. 1 Pitcher or Matka Removal Fig. 2 Frustum Shaped SSPV Removal
FRUSTUM SHAPED POROUS VESSELS FOR SUB-SURFACE IRRIGATION
- Experiments have indicated a higher yield of farm produce.
- Experiment also saw improvement in the nutrient value of soil after the installation of frustum-shaped vessels at the mounds formed on land.
- The initiative, supported by Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi‘s Rural Technology Action Group, was taken up earlier this year.
- The model has effectively modified watering by pitchers and competes with drip irrigation.
- The local villagers have created heaped piles of earth and are growing vegetables such as brinjal, tomato, spinach and lady’s fingers with the new model.(Fig.1)
- Then it is baked at a temperature of 750-800 degree Celsius with the addition of a carbon layer in its structure.
- A team of local potters has been identified in Jodhpur for manufacturing the vessels in the open-hearth furnaces at their households.
- The SSPVs, with the storage of 8 to 9 litres of water, supplies it to a radius of land measuring 1.25 metres.
- In India, Matka irrigation or pitcher irrigation was and is practiced from ages.
- Due to its spheroid shape, its insertion and extraction from the soil is associated with excessive drudgery and soil disturbance.
The Frustum shape of a porous vessel helps to avoid the above said disadvantages. Fig. 3 SSPV Moulding Press Machine Fig. 4 Shaped Frustum SSPV Composite
- Less soil disturbance while re-inserting and extraction from soils.
- Mechanized production of frustum shapes is easy using a SSPV Moulding Press Machine.
AREA OF THE PROJECT
- Rural Manufacturing
- Horticulture farming
- Sub-Surface Irrigation
- Potter (Kumhar) Skilling
- Drainage Management
- Soil Remediation.
CHALLENGES IN MATKA IRRIGATION
- Spheroid shape, its insertion and extraction from the soil is associated with excessive drudgery.
- Conservation type agriculture becomes impossible due to soil disturbance.
- Mechanized manufacturing of the spheroidal shaped objects with uniform thickness, controlled porosity and ceramic properties can only be an outcome of high end technology.
- Improved local industry – academia relations.
- Dedicated manufacturers, potters, farmers and organic fruit and vegetable market contributors.
- Tentative Cost of Manual SSPV Moulding Machine is around Rs. 47,500.
- Tentative Cost of the SSPV Vessels is around Rs. 180
SOURCES: THE HINDU | Frustum Shaped Porous Vessels for Sub-surface Irrigation | UPSC