Fluoride and Iron Removal Technology | UPSC
CSIR-CMERI comes up with High Flow Rate Water Purification Technology for Fluoride and Iron Removal
WHY IN NEWS:
CSIR-CMERI for the very first time has come up with a dual solution (excess F– and Fe3+ mitigation from ground water).
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Science and Technology
For PRELIMS go through the significance of iron and fluoride in this context . Look at the principle and keep an eye on the working .
For MAINS what are the harmful impacts of iron and fluoride when consumed for longer durations ? How does it effect Rural India ; where majority of drinking water consumed is groundwater ! Let us dive in .
NEED OF THE TECHNOLOGY
- The present invention reveals about proper design and development of a water purification system.
- It is effective and simultaneously removes fluoride and iron (below WHO permissible limit) in an efficient manner from contaminated water.
IRON IN HUMAN BODY
- Iron is the most abundant trace element in human body.
- It is responsible for vital biological functions such as gastrointestinal processes and the regulation of body temperature.
- But when iron level in water is beyond 0.3 ppm (as per WHO guideline), it shows several adverse effects .
FLUORIDE IN HUMAN BODY
- Restricted dose of fluoride ( less than 1.5 ppm, as per WHO guideline) in drinking water is required for proper growth.
- But intake of excess fluoride can affect human health profusely by causing dental and skeletal fluorosis initially.
- On a longer run , it leads to a crippling malady (sickness).
- About 60-70 million people of India have been indicated to be at excess (fluoride) F– threat.
- The groundwater in rural habitations distributed in various states of India are found to be contaminated with elevated fluoride concentration.
- Therefore, there is a need of affordable water purification technology for fluoride and iron removal.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
- The present invention relates to an integrated approach towards design and development of a community level water treatment plant .
- Three FRP (Fibre Reinforced Plastic) made vessels of specific dimensions has been set up here in series with each other, which are:
i) Chamber-I (oxidation chamber),
ii) Chamber-II (Iron removing filter) and
iii) Chamber-III (Fluoride removing filter).
- The oxidation chamber contains manganese oxide enriched ores within the permissible limit.
- This acts as an oxidising agent (screens out metal contaminants like Fe2+).
- Lastly, the Fluoride removal filter also contains several low cost adsorbent materials .
- These adsorbent materials are : activated alumina, ferrite impregnated activated alumina (FIA, a patented product from CMERI) and zinc impregnated activated charcoal.
- Thus , in sequential manner to the fluoride materials are mitigated with the residual fluoride from groundwater.
- A hypochlorite dosing pump with dosing in proper proportions and micron filter are installed in line with the mentioned vessels for disinfection of targeted contaminated water.
- To meet the high demand of fluoride free cost effective drinking water focus was to achieve 10,000-12,000 litre/hour flow rate of the purified water.
- The flow is being continuously monitored by installing a flow meter.
- The CSIR-CMERI developed Fluoride and Iron removal system is comprised of three staged purification system.
- The first FRP make vessel (Chamber-I)is for rapid removal of precipitated iron.
- The next one(Chamber-II) is one of the most crucial chambers for removal of the left over iron from the contaminated water.
- In the third stage ; the adsorbents will fulfil the purpose of fluoride mitigation.
- An initiative towards solving dual contaminants problem in ground water (F– as well as Fe3+)
- It removes both of them in an efficient manner from contaminated water bodies.
- High flow rate (10,000 litres/h) integrated purification system.
- Sustainability towards healthy livelihood generation.
- Selective backwash without dismantling any part of the plant.
- The developed plant is successfully able to mitigate iron from an initial concentration of ~9 ppm to less than 0.3 ppm (safe limit of Fe as per WHO guideline).
- The fluoride content also was reduced from initial ~12 ppm to <1.5 ppm (safe limit of F– as per WHO guideline).
SOURCES:PIB | Fluoride and Iron Removal Technology | UPSC