Explained : What are Nanomicelles | UPSC

Explained : What are Nanomicelles | UPSC

      HEADLINES:

Nanomicelles: using nanoparticles for cancer treatment

      WHY IN NEWS:

Once injected intravenously, these nanomicelles can easily escape the circulation and enter the solid tumours.

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Science : Cell Structure

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS it is important to understand Formation , Cell structure, different forms and how these cell contribute in chemotherapy.

      ISSUE: 

These have hydrophilic outer shell and hydrophobic interior, making them perfect carriers for delivering drug molecules

WHAT ARE NANOMICELLES?

NANOMICELLES
Nanomicelles are ultramicrosopic globular structures that consist of exterior hydrophilic polar heads and an interior hydrophobic fatty acyl chain.

  • With the advance in nanotechnology, researchers across the globe have been exploring how to use nanoparticles for efficient drug delivery.
  • Similar to nanoshells and nanovesicles, nanomicelles are extremely small structures and have been noted as an emerging platform in targeted therapy.

SMALL BUT ACTIVE

  • The nanomicelles are less than 100nm in size and are stable at room temperature.
  • Once injected intravenously these nanomicelles can easily escape the circulation and enter the solid tumours where the blood vessels are found to be leaky.
  • These leaky blood vessels are absent in the healthy organs.
  • Chemical conjugation would render the phospholipid-docetaxel prodrug to be silent in the circulation and healthy organs.

Explained : What are Nanomicelles | UPSC

Nanomicelles are capable of delivering poorly water-soluble drugs as well as the protection of drug molecules.

FORMULATION OF NANOMICELLES

  • Nanomicelles are typically spherical, but can sometimes take other shapes, such as cylinders and ellipsoids.

The small  size and shape of nanomicelles is only possible due to the molecular geometry of the particle 

  • The shapes formed also depend on the ionic strength, surfactant concentration, and pH strength of the solutions they are placed in.

FACTORS INFLUENCING NANOMICELLES

In addition, the following factors were empirically-found to influence the formulation and development of nanomicelles:

  • CHAIN LENGTH OF SURFACTANT MOLECULES  : Nanomicelles with lower concentrations will form when a molecule’s chain length is longer
  • DISSOLVED SALTS : Presence of dissolved salts in the solution lowers critical micelle concentration (CMC)
  • ADDITION OF ALCOHOL TO WATER – CMC increases relative to the type of alcohol (ranging from methanol to butanol) that is added to water.
  • TEMPERATURE : Increase in temperature also increases CMC

Nanomicelles are formed when amphiphilic molecules assemble themselves to create a globular structure that is only around 5 to 100nm in diameter

DIFFERENT FORMS

  • The particles may be formed in aqueous or non-aqueous solutions where the nonpolar region forms the interior and the polar region forms the exterior.

Nanomicelles are able to take on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents

  • Different agents are used to create nanomicelles, however, they are usually made through surfactant molecules that may be non-ionic, ionic, and cationic detergents.
  • Some nanomicelles may also be developed from a mixture of lipids and detergents.
  • The critical micelle concentration and the typical number of detergent molecules are dependent on the amount of lipids and proteins in the micelles.

USES OF NANOMICELLES

  • Micelles are used primarily as solutions for membrane proteins.
  • Research shows that nanomicelles are more effective in studying the capabilities of such proteins, than bilayer vesicles because of their relatively smaller size.

Apart from this, empirical evidences also show that nanomicelles could be used as therapeutic interventions involving protein and peptide delivery

  • The current form of drug delivery through intravitreal injections are not patient-compliant and therefore poses a challenge on patient care and treatment.
  • Researches on bioengineering have found the use of nanomicelles as a smart and efficient drug-delivery system.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NANOMICELLES

  • The primary advantage of nanomicelles is its core-shell structure.
  • The hydrophobic contents within the nanomicelle shell facilitates the solubilization of hydrophobic drugs in water.

At the same time, the hydrophilic shell itself acts as a protection for the drug by eliminating the MPS that enables prolonged circulation
 

  • Another advantage of nanomicelles are their  quality as an efficient pharmaceutical content because of their low toxicity, ability to minimize drug degradation.
  • Nanomicelles have ability to permeate tissues easily for drug delivery, and lower adverse drug side effects.
  • While nanomicelles have been found to be an effective solution in many therapeutic, medical, and bioengineering problems.

The structures have inefficient drug-loading capabilities (smaller than liposomes), poor physical stability in vivo, and insufficient cellular interactions with neutral micelles.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

RECENT FINDINGS

  • Once it enters the cancer cells, the enzymes will cleave the bond to activate the drug, and kill the cancer cells.

The team tested the effectiveness of the nanomicelles in a mice breast tumour model and was found to help in tumour regression

  • Its toxicity was compared with the currently used FDA approved formulation and found to be less toxic.
  • These nanomicelles are extremely cost-effective and can prove to be next-generation chemotherapeutic.
     SOURCES:  THE HINDU  | Explained : What are Nanomicelles | UPSC

 

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