EOS-01 : Earth Observation Satellite | UPSC
India successfully launches earth observation satellite
WHY IN NEWS:
EOS-01This is ISRO’s first mission in 2020, amidst the pandemic
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Space
For PRELIMS it is important to go through the previous flights , features , applications etc.
For MAINS go through the applications of earth observation satellites and its significance . Let us dive in !
ISRO’S SATELLITE EOS-01
- India successfully launched its latest earth observation satellite EOS-01.
- It nine international customer spacecraft on board a Polar rocket from the spaceport.
- The COVID-19 pandemic induced lockdown disturbed 10 missions planned by the agency.
- This is ISRO’s first mission since the launch of RISAT-2BR1, another earth observation satellite similar to EOS-01, on December 11 last year.
- India’s PSLV, in its fifty first flight (PSLV-C49) was successfully launched ; EOS-01 PSLV-C49 .
- It is the 2nd flight of PSLV in ‘DL’ configuration with 2 solid strap-on motors.
- The satellite has four stages and 44.5-metre tall PSLV-C49 is shown in the image below:
PSLV successfully launches EOS-01 and nine customer satellites from Sriharikota | ISRO’s Satellite EOS-01 | UPSC
- PSLV-C49 lifted-off at 1511 Hrs (IST) from the First Launch Pad of SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota .
- After 15 minutes and 20 seconds, EOS-01 was successfully injected into its orbit.
- ISRO Chairman K. Sivan described the mission as a “success” and termed it “unusual” for ISRO as a rocket launch cannot happen like “work from home” !
- All engineers and technicians had to travel from different centres and work together at Sriharikota for rocket launches.
WHAT DO EARTH OBSERVATION SATELLITE DO ?
- Land and forest mapping and monitoring.
- Mapping of resources like water or minerals or fishes.
- Weather and climate observations
- Soil assessment
- Geospatial contour mapping.
EOS-01 AND RISAT’s APPLICATIONS
- EOS-01, and its sister RISATs, use X-band radars that operate at low wavelengths.
- They are considered best for monitoring of urban landscape and imaging of agricultural or forest land.
- The radar images are also considered to be immensely useful for military requirements.
- EOS-01 is nothing but another Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT) that will work together with RISAT-2B and RISAT-2BR1 launched last year.
- EOS-01 was initially named RISAT-2BR2.
- With EOS-01, ISRO is moving to a new naming system for its earth observation satellites which till now have been named thematically, according to the purpose they are meant for.
- Some INSAT-series, Resourcesat series, GISAT, Scatsat, and some more are all earth observation satellites.
NINE CUSTOMER SATELLITES
- The nine customer satellites from Lithuania (1), Luxembourg (4) and USA (4) were launched under a commercial arrangement with NewSpace India Limited (NSIL).
- For the launch of EOS-01, ISRO used a new variant of its PSLV rocket that has been flown only once before last year.
- In January Last year , ISRO had placed the Microsat-R satellite in orbit.
- This Microsat-R was the one that was brought down in March last year .
- This variant of PSLV does not become waste after depositing its satellite in the orbit.
- This can be used as an orbital platform for other onboard instruments to perform experiments in space.
- In effect, the fourth stage acts like another satellite, with a life span of about six months.
- For the PSLV, this was the 51st flight. Only two of its launches have not been successful.
- EOS-01, like its cousins RISAT-2B and RISAT-2BR1, uses synthetic aperture radars to produce high-resolution images of the land.
- It can produce high-quality images in all conditions and at all times.
- Depending on the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation used by the radar, different properties on land can be captured in the image.
- ISRO had planned more than 20 satellite launches in the fiscal year 2020-21.
- In view of the pandemic, ISRO implemented precautions for COVID-19, and scientists, Mission Directors maintaining social distancing at the Mission Control Centre.
- There was no gathering of media persons and the public viewing gallery too was closed.
- ISRO made arrangements for the live telecast of the launch through various platforms, including its website and social media sites.
SOURCES: THE HINDU | EOS-01 : Earth Observation Satellite | UPSC