Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) 2020 | UPSC
Cabinet approves Externally Aided Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project – Phase II and Phase III
WHY IN NEWS:
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) Phase II & Phase III.
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Dams
For PRELIMS go through the whole scheme . Forget the numbers and focus on measure , funding , institution involved etc.
For MAINS what the steps in rehabilitation of a dam ? Let us dive in !
DAM REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT PROJECT (DRIP)
- This will be along with institutional strengthening with system wide management approach.
- World Bank (WB)
- Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).
- The project cost is Rs 10,211 crore.
- The contribution of Central Government is Rs 1,024 crore as loan liability and Rs 285 crore as counter-part funding for Central Component.
- The Project will be implemented over a period of 10 years duration in two Phases.
- The overall implementation of the project would be coordinated by Central Water Commission.
DRIP PHASE II & PHASE III : OBJECTIVES
- To improve the safety and performance of selected existing dams and associated appurtenances in a sustainable manner.
- To explore the alternative incidental means at few of selected dams to generate the incidental revenue for sustainable operation and maintenance of dams
DRIP PHASE II & PHASE III : COMPONENTS
- Rehabilitation and improvement of dams and associated appurtenances
- Exploration of alternative incidental means at few of selected dams to generate the incidental revenue for sustainable operation and maintenance of dams
- Project management.
- The primary beneficiaries, both urban and rural communities, are dependent on reservoirs for their water supply and livelihood.
- As well as all downstream communities of the dams who could be placed at physical and/or operational risk if dam safety is compromised.
- Dams have played a key role in fostering rapid and sustained agricultural and rural growth and development.
- Irrigated agriculture and hydropower development have been major pillars to achieve these priority goals and to ensure food security.
- Rainfall occurs mainly in intense and unpredictable downpours within a four-month monsoon season.
- Except for the perennial Himalayan Rivers, almost all the river systems in India are seasonal.
- India ranks third in the world after China and the United States in terms of number of dams.
THE NEED FOR REHABILITATION
- These dams have served the country well for the economic stability even in the worst years of drought, floods, cyclones, etc.
- Out of these, 3750 (79.6%) dams are more than 20 years old.
- Few of them do not meet the present design standards – both structurally and hydrologically.
- Thus an increasing number of dams fall in the category where they need rehabilitation.
- Water being a state subject, the state governments are the owners of the dams within their territories.
- As such any dam safety related initiatives by the Central Government would necessarily have to involve the state governments also.
- Keeping this in view, the matter was broached in the State Irrigation Ministers Conference held in 1975; In a follow up of its recommendation,
- The objective of this DSO was to perform a advisory role for the State Governments and to lay down guidelines, compile technical literature, organize trainings, etc.
- In general to take steps to create awareness in the states about dam safety and thereafter assist in setting up infrastructure for the same
- The risk of failure of a dam is one of the inevitable concerns of civilization.
- There have been about 200 notable failures of large dams in the world (as per ICOLD figures of 1995) and more than 8000 people have died in these disasters.
Dam failures are typically caused by:
- Factors of age
- Construction deficiencies
- Inadequate maintenance
- Extreme weather or seismic events
- Wrong operation.
MODERNIZATION OF DAMS
The need has been felt for a centrally coordinated scheme to :
(i) Ensure rehabilitation and modernization of dams to bring them back to full standard of safety and operation;
(ii) Develop and implement adequate maintenance programs.
(iii) Ensure regular review of the status of the dams, both by the operator and by independent review panels, to examine problems relating to sustainable O&M of dams;
(iv) Formulate standards and guidelines and asset management systems to minimize future risks of dam failures; and
(v) Strengthen institutional mechanism in states.
- Large dams with substantial need for rehabilitation and improvements have been included and appropriate institutional mechanisms for their safe operation will be developed.
- Many dams suffer from operational deficiencies, while some dams have structural and mechanical problems that could become a safety hazard.
THE PROJECT WILL TARGET
- Physical and technical dam improvements
- Managerial upgrading of dam operations
- Management and maintenance
- Accompanying institutional reforms and strengthening of regulatory measures
SOURCES:PIB | Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) 2020 | UPSC