“Hot heads and cold hearts never solved anything.”― Billy Graham



ICAR to set up innovation fund


ICAR to set up innovation fund to help farmers

      WHY IN NEWS:

A system will soon be put in place to scientifically validate, scale up and propagate the innovations of progressive farmers as the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is poised to set up a Farmers’ Innovation Fund.



For PRELIMS features of farmers innovation is very important.

For MAINS this does not sound very important issue.


The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an autonomous organisation under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare , Government of India. Formerly known as Imperial Council of Agricultural Research, it was established on 16 July 1929 as a registered society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 in pursuance of the report of the Royal Commission on Agriculture. 

Headquarters :New Delhi.

AIM : The Council is the apex body for co-ordinating, guiding and managing research and education in agriculture including horticulture, fisheries and animal sciences in the entire country.

REACH : With 101 ICAR institutes and 71 agricultural universities spread across the country this is one of the largest national agricultural systems in the world.


  • The ICAR has played a pioneering role in ushering Green Revolution and subsequent developments in agriculture in India through its research and technology development that has enabled the country to increase the production of foodgrains by 5.4 times, horticultural crops by 10.1 times, fish by 15.2 times, milk 9.7 times and eggs 48.1 times since 1951 to 2017, thus making a visible impact on the national food and nutritional security.
  • It has played a major role in promoting excellence in higher education in agriculture.
  • It is engaged in cutting edge areas of science and technology development and its scientists are internationally acknowledged in their fields.


The fund will become operational by the next financial year.

As part of this system, an innovation centre would be established in New Delhi where the innovations would be scientifically validated.

Farmers would also be allowed to pursue research under the system.

AIM: The intention was to link farmers and farming with science and to ensure that their farm practices were science-based.

Linked with start-ups:As part of efforts to encourage use of technology in the farm sector, a linkage had been created between 105 start-ups with farmers.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Various revolutions in agricultural and allied sectors, including green revolution and white revolutions, happened because of scientific approach and use of technology

If you do not apply the [wc_highlight color=”yellow” class=””]principles of science to agriculture[/wc_highlight] , then we will fail.


Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSD)


HC asks Centre to help LSD patients

      WHY IN NEWS:

Seeks plan in a month for sharing financial burden of treatment cost with States



For PRELIMS you should be aware of LSD by now . This issue iss repeating every month in newspapers . Watch out !

For MAINS go through the various aspect of this diseases mentioned below.


The Madras High Court on Monday directed the Centre to consider providing medical care to economically poor patients suffering from the rare Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSD)

So what are the directions from HC ?

  • A group of more than 50 genetically inherited and potentially fatal disorders, as an issue no less than a “national emergency” and come up with a concrete plan, within a month, on sharing the financial burden with the State governments.

What Are Lysosomal Storage Diseases and Disorders?

LSDs are inherited disorders resulting from a lack of specific enzymes that break down certain lipids (fats) or carbohydrates (sugars) in the body cells.

Lysosomal Storage Disease List

The scientific community has identified more than 40 types of lysosomal storage diseases, and that number keeps growing. Although the different types of LSDs are rare individually, taken together they affect roughly 1 in 7,700 births, making them a relatively common health problem.

Some of the most common lysosomal storage disorders include:

  • Gaucher disease: Gaucher disease often causes spleen and liver enlargement, blood problems and bone issues. Learn more about Gaucher disease.
  • Fabry disease: This disorder often causes severe burning pains in hands and feet and, in some cases, a distinctive skin rash on the legs. Untreated, this disease can cause kidney failure, heart failure, strokes and death before age 50. Although men are more likely to have severe disease, women may also be seriously affected.
  • Niemann-Pick disease: Similar to Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease involves organ enlargement, lung dysfunction and central nervous system damage for certain subtypes.
  • Hunter syndrome: This disease is part of a group of disorders that cause bone and joint deformity as well as interference with normal growth.
  • Glycogen storage disease II (Pompe disease): Depending on the specific subtype, Pompe disease may cause heart enlargement and heart failure in infants. It may also cause respiratory problems and severe muscle weakness in adults.
  • Tay-Sachs disease: This disorder causes severe and fatal mental and physical deterioration, with both an early-onset and a late-onset form.


Lysosomal Storage Disease Treatment

At present, there are no known cures for LSDs. However, researchers continue to make progress toward treatment options that go beyond treating symptoms to address underlying causes.

Today, bone marrow transplantation, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and substrate reduction therapy (SRT) are available treatment options for patients with certain types of LSDs. The scientific community continues to conduct research in the hopes of finding cures for patients with all types of LSD

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Gaucher disease is one of the most common lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs).


Indian Data Relay Satellite


New satellites will help Gaganyaan crew

      WHY IN NEWS:

Astronauts can be fully and continuously in touch with mission control throughout their travel



For PRELIMS Indian Data Relay Satellite System and its functionalities are little important .


India plans to ring in its own era of space-to-space tracking and communication of its space assets this year by putting up a new satellite series called the Indian Data Relay Satellite System.


The IDRSS is planned to track and be constantly in touch with Indian satellites, in particular those in low-earth orbits which have limited coverage of earth.

It will also be useful in monitoring launches.

The first beneficiary would be the prospective crew members of the Gaganyaan mission of 2022 who can be fully and continuously in touch with mission control throughout their travel.

Work initiated

Work on the two IDRSS satellites planned initially has begun.

The first of them will be sent towards the end of 2020. It will precede the pre-Gaganyaan experimental unmanned space flight which will have a humanoid dummy.

A second one will follow in 2021. The two will offer near total tracking, sending and receiving of information from the crew 24/7.

IDRSS satellites of the 2,000 kg class would be launched on the GSLV launcher to geostationary orbits around 36,000 km away. In such apparently fixed orbits, they would be covering the same area on earth. A satellite in GEO covers a third of the earth below and three of them can provide total coverage.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

During the launch of the human mission and also when the crew craft orbits earth from a distance of 400 km, at least one ground station must see and track it. But with available ground stations, that would not be the case.

Without data relay satellites, ISRO would have to create a large number ground stations everywhere or hire them globally and yet the crewed spacecraft would not be visible all the time.


State of the Climate Report-2019


Climate change claimed 1,659 lives in 2019, the 7th warmest year on record

      WHY IN NEWS:

“It was an extreme year in terms of weather. There were deadly heatwaves in summer and intense cold waves during winter. Several studies have shown that it is all linked to climate change,” said M. Mohapatra, director general of meteorology, IMD, New Delhi.



For PRELIMS make a note of catastrophic events this year !

For MAINS conclusion will give you takeaway points for any climate change answer.


India Meteorological Department (IMD) Observations:

Extreme weather events driven by climate change claimed as many as 1,659 lives across India in 2019, which ended as the seventh warmest year on record.

Heavy rain– and flood-related incidents took the maximum toll, claiming more than 850 lives across states, according to the State of the Climate Report-2019 prepared by government’s weather department.

Bihar bore the brunt with 650 lives lost in the state, out of which 306 were lost in the floods triggered by heavy monsoon rain.

Heavy showers also claimed several lives in Maharashtra (136), Uttar Pradesh (107), Kerala (88), Rajasthan (80), and Karnataka (43).

Lightning and thunderstorm in these states led to the death of 380 people.

The searing temperatures during summer led to heatwaves, killing 350 people.

Of these, 292 were reported from Bihar alone, followed by 44 in Maharashtra, and 13 in Jharkhand.

Severe cold wave and cold conditions swept large parts of northwest India in December, killing more than 28 people in Uttar Pradesh.

Snowfall and avalanche-related incidents killed 33 people in Jammu and Kashmir and 18 in Leh.

The national capital recorded the longest cold spell of 18 days, with the maximum day-time temperature plummeting to the lowest ever (since 1902) of 9.4°C on 30 December.

However, the most evident impact was seen on the oceans, with one of the most intense cyclone seasons ever.

As many as eight cyclonic storms formed over the Indian seas, including five in the Arabian Sea, compared to the usual one per year.

The assessment showed that India’s annual mean surface air temperature was +0.36°C above the 1981-2010 period average during all the four seasons in 2019, with the monsoon (June-September) being the warmest since 1901.

The year 2016 remains the warmest year on record for India so far, followed by 2009, 2017, 2010, and 2015.

SOC Report:

Climate change and global warming rages on, and humans scramble to figure out what to do about it.

This week’s UN Convention on Climate Change in Madrid, Spain was yet another forum to discuss what global efforts can be made to effect change.

The recently released WMO Provisional Statement of the State of the Climate for 2019 provided substantial scientific backing that climate change is happening, and it called for unsurprising action: change, and fast.

This year’s 34-page report provides substantial data and research that are notable and alarming on their own. However, it poignantly analyzes this data to give the reader the most important takeaways about what is happening with our Earth, and why.

Every year, the WMO releases a report on the state of the global climate to help global policy makers understand the science and data behind this big topic of climate change and global warming.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Extreme weather events are on the rise and we have been seeing this for the last few years. The challenge is to work on our early warning systems.

The temperature was substantially lower than the surface air temperature in 2016, but scientists warned that the threat of climate change, if not dealt with, could lead to many more extreme weather events.

Backed by extensive research and written by a globally acclaimed organizations and scientists, this report screams one reality: we are running out of time, and drastic change is needed now.




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