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Kerala islands now under CRZ cover


2,130 Kerala islands now under CRZ cover

      WHY IN NEWS:

Restrictions will be imposed on development work

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:CRZ:Coastal Ecosystem:Biodiversity Conservation


For PRELIMS let us understand CRZ and its implications.

For MAINS go through the timeline of CRZ given below.


As many as 2,130 backwater islands of Kerala, including Maradu, have been brought under the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) regime thereby imposing curbs on development activities.

No new development activity will be permitted in these islands in an area between the High Tide Line (HTL) and 50 metres towards the landward side, which is the CRZ area of these islands.

The HTL is the line on the land up to which the highest water line reaches during the spring tide.

The islands of Mulavukad, Chendamangalam, Kothad, Pizhala and Kadamakudy of Ernakulam, where some major CRZ violations have been reported, are there in the list of 1,068 islands of the district.


The 474 islands of Alappuzha and the 184 of Kollam are also in the list. Thiruvananthapuram has the least number of islands, 43.

This is for the first time that a list of Kerala islands is being drawn up.

It was prepared by the National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, for the Kerala Coastal Zone Management Authority. The list will soon be uploaded on the website of the authority.


Coastal Regulation Zones (CRZ) are the areas along the 7,500 km-long coastal stretch of India. Development of buildings, tourism infrastructure and other facilities is regulated in these areas by the Government of India.

Coastal Stretches of creeks, bays, seas, rivers and backwaters that are affected by the tidal actions of up to 500 metres from the High Tide Line and the land between the Low Tide Line and the High Tide line are Coastal Regulation Zones (CRZ).

A notification was issued in February 1991, under the Environment Protection Act, 1986 for the regulation of coastal area activities by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF).

This was when the Government of India notified Coastal Regulation Zones (CRZ) for the first time.

As per the notification, coastal areas have been classified into four categories as CRZ-1, CRZ-2, CRZ-3 and CRZ-4.



These are ecologically sensitive areas which are essential in maintaining the ecosystem of the coasts.

  • These include national parks/marine parks, sanctuaries, reserve forests, wildlife habitats, mangroves and corals/coral reefs.
  • These areas are situated between the high and low tide lines.


The areas that have already developed up till the shoreline of the coast are included in this zone.

  • Construction of unauthorised structures is prohibited in this zone.


Rural and urban localities that are relatively undisturbed and do not belong to the first two categories are included under CRZ-3.

  • Only specific activities related to agriculture or some public facilities are allowed in this zone.
  • It includes areas within municipal limits or in legally designated urban areas that are not substantially built-up.


These areas include the coastal stretches in Lakshadweep, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and some other small islands, except those termed as CRZ-I, CRZ-II, or CRZ-III.

  • These areas reside in the aquatic region up to the territorial limits.
  • Activities such as fishing and other allied services are permitted in this zone.
  • Releasing solid waste is prohibited on such land.


A draft of CRZ was released in 2018 by the Ministry of Environment which focussed on the effect on the management of common areas used by fisherfolks.

The draft also emphasised on dividing various coastal zones along the rural areas based on the population density.


      IASbhai WINDUP: 

The notification fails to address the concerns raised by the fishermen and the local community issues.The government should come up with a comprehensive act for the coastal areas and facilitate the greater role of local bodies and enhanced community participation in the governance of coastal areas so as to ensure sustained utilization of coastal zones.


Bandipur tiger reserve


Bandipur tiger reserve can rest easy this summer

      WHY IN NEWS:

Of the 370 big and small waterholes, 85% are full

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Wildlife:National Park


For PRELIMS geography of Bandipur park is very important which we have mentioned here.

For MAINS methods of conservation are fascinating for protection of wildlife in this National Park. Go through some methods and make a note !


Prolonged monsoon and unseasonal rains as late as in November have helped rejuvenate the waterholes in Bandipur, most of which are full to the brim.This is expected to help wild animals beat water stress and tide over the greater part of the scorching summer that has already set in and will last till pre-monsoon showers lash the national park in Karnataka normally in mid-May.

Late showers have brought relief to Bandipur.

There are 370 big and small waterholes in Bandipur and 85% of them are full, while a few smaller ones are getting depleted.

The critical months are February and March, when a majority of the waterholes dry up, resulting in severe stress for animals.

But this year, water situation is better owing to late showers.


This National Park was formed by including most of the forest areas of the then Venugopala Wildlife Park established under Govt. Notification dated 19th February 1941 and the area was enlarged in 1985 extending over an area of 874.20 Sq.Km and named as Bandipur National Park.

This reserve was brought under Project Tiger in 1973.



The Bandipur, Nagarahole, Wayanad, Mudumalai and Sathyamangalam Tiger Landscape is spread across the states of Karnataka (Bandipur-Nagarahole), Tamil Nadu (Mudumalai-Sathyamangalam) and Kerala (Wayanad).

The Tiger population on the Karnataka side (Nagarahole, Bandipur, BRT Tiger Reserves, M.M. Hills & Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary and adjoining forest) was estimated at 231 Tigers.

Since, this Tiger population is contiguous with Mudumalai in Tamil Nadu and Wayanad in Kerala, and move across the state boundaries, this Tiger number is not unique to Karnataka, but are indicative for the state.

The Bandipur Tiger Reserve along with Nagarahole, Mudumalai, Sathyamangalam & Wayanad Landscape is the source population in the Western Ghats landscape complex with an estimated Tiger population of about 382 constitutes the single largest Wild population of Tigers in the world 


Main chain of Nilgiri Mountain range bordering Bandipur Tiger Reserve comprises of Achaean metamorphic rock which include Charnockite, Biotitic, Magnetite, Quartzite, Hornblende, Granulite, Pegmatite, and Dolerite and Quartz veins.

Intensive bands of Charnockite forms bulk of the rock units in bordering Mudumalai Tiger Reserve area, extending in to the Bandipur Tiger Reserve.

This hypersthenes-bearing bluish grey rock forms the basement in high-grade metamorphic terrain.

The Charnockite has granolithic texture and contains quartz, feldspar, hypersthenes garnet and hornblende, Biotite, apatite and zircon as accessory minerals.

Image result for Charnockite has granolithic texture"

Hornblende Granulite is found along the areas bordering Wayanad, extending into the Bandipur Tiger Reserve.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 


In areas of water stress, 37 solar-powered borewells will help replenish the tanks.

Anti-Poaching camps are also organised.

Similarly, in the distant M.M. Hills Wildlife Sanctuary, there are around 100 waterholes apart from two rivers — Cauvery and Palar — of which the Cauvery is perennial while the flow in Palar is expected to last till the end of March.

SUGGESTED READING : https://bandipurtigerreserve.in

National Logistics Policy


National Logistics Policy will be Released Soon

      WHY IN NEWS:

Policy to Create a Single Window E- Logistics Market

Will Generate Employment and Make MSMES Competitive – Nirmala Sitharaman

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2:3:Policy:Governance:Transport


For PRELIMS keep an eye on key-facts being highlighted in this policy.

For MAINS significance of such policy making should be done.


The policy will create a single window e-logistics market and focus on generation of employment, skills and make MSMEs competitive.


Ministry of Commerce & Industry


India’s logistics sector is highly defragmented and the aim is to reduce the logistics cost from the present 14% of GDP to less than 10% by 2022.

India’s logistics sector is very complex with more than 20 government agencies, 40 PGAs, 37 export promotion councils, 500 certifications, 10000 commodities, 160 billion market size.

It also involves 12 million employment base, 200 shipping agencies, 36 logistics services, 129 ICDs, 168 CFSs, 50 IT ecosystems and banks & insurance agencies. Further, 81 authorities and 500 certificates are required for EXIM.

The Indian logistics sector provides livelihood to more than 22 million people and improving the sector will facilitate 10 % decrease in indirect logistics cost leading to the growth of 5 to 8% in exports.

Further, it is estimated that the worth of Indian logistics market will be around USD 215 billion in next two years compared to about USD 160 billion at present.

National Logistics Policy Announcement

  • Introduction of GST has brought in efficiency in logistics and transportation sector.  It has reduced turnaround time of trucks by over 20%.
  • Geo-tagging of all warehousing.
  • Warehousing shall be promoted to comply with WDRA norms.
  • VGF shall be provided for setting up of warehousing at the block / taluk levels on PPP mode.  Food Corporation of India, Central Warehousing Corporation shall also offer their land for this purpose.
  • Village Storage Scheme through Women Self-help groups shall provide backward linkages for seeds thereby reducing logistics costs. Financial assistance under MUDRA loans and NABARD shall be provided for this purpose.
  • Cold chains for fish and perishables shall be promoted.
  • Refrigerated vans shall be attached to passenger trains to promote movement of perishables quickly.
  • Krishi trains shall also be run on PPP mode.
  • Krishi Udan scheme shall be promoted / launched whereby horticulture and perishable commodities shall be transported through the air-route that will especially benefit the North-East region and tribal area.  It will definitely help movement of perishables and foodstuff to produce-areas to consumption-areas.
  • Cluster approach shall be adopted for promoting horticulture.  One Product One District shall be encouraged.
  • National Organic e-Market will be developed for organic products.
  • Financing of negotiable warehousing receipts would be encouraged and also its integration with e-NAM.
  • National Logistics Policy will be released soon.  Inter-alia, it will clarify the roles of the Union Government, State Governments and key regulators.  It will create a single window e-Logistics Market place and focus on generation of employment, skills and making MSMEs competitive.
  • Rs.100 lakh crore National Infrastructure pipeline has been launched which includes over 6500 infrastructure projects.  National infrastructure pipeline has projects worth Rs.19.6 lakh crore for roads, Rs.13.69 lakh crore for railways, Rs.1.43 lakh crore for airports and Rs.1.01 lakh crore for ports.
  • Accelerated development of highways will be undertaken.  2500 kms. of access controlled highways, 9000 kms. of economic corridors, 2000 kms. of coastal and land-port roads and 2000 kms. of strategic highways.
  • Delhi – Mumbai and Chennai – Bengaluru express highways to be made operational by 2023.
  • 12 lots of highway building consisting of over 6000 kms. shall be offered for monetisation by 2024.
  • Governance structure for corporatisation of one major port shall be introduced.
  • Inland Waterways especially Jal Vikas Marg (NW1) will be made operational.
  • Inland Waterways from Dhubri to Sadia in Assam shall be promoted by 2022.
  • Inland Waterways shall be promoted under the Programme called Arth-Ganga i.e., promoting economic activities along with banks of the river.
  • 100 more airports shall be established under the UDAN scheme.
  • 1200 airplanes shall be added from the present 600.
The National Logistics Policy formulated by the Commerce and Industry Ministry will improve India’s trade competitiveness, create more jobs, improve India’s performance in global rankings and pave the way for India to become a logistics hub.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Rs.1.7 lakh crore have been allocated for the transportation sector in 2020-21.


Study on bat-hunters: Nagaland


Study on bat-hunters of Nagaland under scanner

      WHY IN NEWS:

It was carried out by researchers from the U.S., China and India



For PRELIMS observations of this report is important.


The report of a government inquiry into a study conducted in Nagaland by researchers from the U.S., China and India on bats and humans carrying antibodies to deadly viruses like Ebola was submitted to the Health Ministry

The inquiry comes as officials worldwide grapple with the spread of novel coronavirus (nCoV) 2019 from Wuhan in China to over 20 countries.

Filovirus history

The first Filovirus was recognized in 1967 when a number of laboratory workers in Germany and Yugoslavia, who were handling tissues from green monkeys, developed hemorrhagic fever.


Filoviruses belong to a virus family called Filoviridae and can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates.

Spreading Filovirus infections

In an outbreak or isolated case among humans, just how the virus is transmitted from the natural reservoir to a human is unknown.

Colorized negative stained transmission electron micrograph depicting a Marburg virus virion, in the filovirus family.

Once a human is infected, however, person-to-person transmission is the means by which further infections occur.

Specifically, transmission involves close personal contact between an infected individual or their body fluids, and another person.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

The study came under the scanner as two of the 12 researchers belonged to the Wuhan Institute of Virology’s Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, and it was funded by the U.S Department of Defense’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).


Money earned in India by NRIs will be taxed


Money earned in India by NRIs will be taxed, says Nirmala

      WHY IN NEWS:

Clarification follows letter from Kerala CM over impact on workers in West Asia

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2:Taxation :Finance Bill


Let this come in reality . We will provide more details to it . But right now this has to be studied as part of Current Affairs.


Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on Sunday scotched fears that provisions introduced in the Budget would bring Indian workers’ income in zero tax jurisdictions, like the UAE, into the Indian tax net.

The Finance Bill has proposed three major changes to prevent tax abuse by citizens who don’t pay taxes anywhere in the world —

  • reducing the number of days that an Indian citizen can be granted non-resident status for tax purposes from 182 to 120;
  • citizens who don’t pay taxes anywhere will be deemed to be a resident; and
  • the definition of ‘not ordinarily resident’ has been tightened.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 


Alarmed by the possible implications of the new provisions, Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan wrote to Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday, recording the State’s strong disagreement over the provision as it will hurt Indians working in the Middle East, “who toil and bring foreign exchange to the country” through remittances.


“The new provision is being interpreted to create an impression that those Indians who are bonafide workers in other countries, including in the Middle East, and who are not liable to tax in these countries, will be taxed in India on the income that they have earned there. This interpretation is not correct,” the Finance Ministry said in a statement.


Removal of DDT will boost investments


Removal of DDT will boost investments: CBDT

      WHY IN NEWS:

Centre believes the new regime will encourage low-income people to invest in the capital market

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2:Taxation regime


For PRELIMS you should understand what is DDT in depth.


A day after the Union Budget proposed removal of the dividend distribution tax (DDT) levied on companies, the government said on Sunday that the new regime was expected to encourage more people, especially in the low tax bracket, to invest in the capital market.

The government said that with dividend now being proposed to be taxed in the hands of the investors at their applicable slab rate, non-residents would get some relief even as it addressed the “issue of inequity in dividend taxation”.

Single rate of taxation is always iniquitous as it favours taxpayers who are in higher tax brackets and works against those who are in lower tax brackets.

“Thus, it was a case of reverse subsidy from the poor to rich taxpayers. Further, non-residents were taxed at a higher rate than the treaty rate with the possibility of no tax credit in the home country,”


The Dividend Distribution Tax is a tax levied on dividends that a company pays to its shareholders out of its profits.

The Dividend Distribution Tax, or DDT, is taxable at source, and is deducted at the time of the company distributing dividends.

The dividend is the part of [wc_highlight color=”yellow” class=””]profits that the company shares with its shareholders.[/wc_highlight]

The law provides for the Dividend Distribution Tax to be levied at the hands of the company, and not at the hands of the receiving shareholder.

However, an additional tax is imposed on the shareholder, who receives over Rs. 10 lakh in dividend income in a financial year.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

The government believes that the new regime, however, would encourage individuals in the low-income bracket to invest in the capital market as the tax incidence would drop significantly.

According to the government department, while the DDT was pegged at 15%, the effective rate touched 20.56% due to surcharge and cess. Additionally, individuals were required to pay another 10% plus surcharge if the dividend income exceeded ₹10 lakh in a fiscal.

SUGGESTED READING : https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/miseryindex.asp

Global Misery Index (GMI)


U.S. economist backs Cong. on GMI

      WHY IN NEWS:

On Thursday, Congress leader Manish Tewari said at a press meet that India now ranked high on the GMI.

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Indices:Reports


For PRELIMS its very important to know how this is being calculated and what are the outcomes of such report.


Days after the Congress said the Indian economy should be measured in terms of the Global Misery Index (GMI), Steve Hanke of Johns Hopkins University, an applied economist who popularised the GMI concept, said on Sunday that Indians would not be so “miserable” if the government focused on the economy instead of issues such as the citizenship law.


Equal to the sum of the inflation rate and the unemployment rate, the original misery index was popularized in the 1970s as a measure of America’s economic health during a president’s term in office.

  • The first misery index was created by Arthur Okun in the 1960s and was equal to the sum of inflation and unemployment rate figures to provide a snapshot of the US economy.
  • The higher the index, the more is the misery felt by average citizens.
  • It has broadened in recent times to include other economic indicators, such as bank lending rates.
  • A variation of the original misery index is the Bloomberg misery index, developed by the online publication.
  • In recent times, variations of the original misery index have become popular as a means to gauge the overall health of the global economy.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

According to economists, India’s economy needs to be evaluated in terms of the global misery index (GMI).
SUGGESTED READING : https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/miseryindex.asp

 Let us ‘Discuss’

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Let us know what you think about this in the comment section.



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