Cyclone Amphan UPSC

Cyclone Amphan

      HEADLINES:

IMD warns of Bay of Bengal cyclone on May 16

      WHY IN NEWS:

No prediction whether Cyclone Amphan would make India landfall

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Earth Sciences
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 1 :Geography

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS it is important to understand the naming procedure of cyclones and the reason of its occurrence !

For MAINS Bay of Bengal is prone to so many disturbances than Arabian Sea ! Can you explain it with five strong points ?

      ISSUE: 

The low-pressure area is likely to move towards central parts of south Bay of Bengal and may form into cyclone Amphan by May 16 Photo: IMD

SOURCES :  The low-pressure area is likely to move towards central parts of south Bay of Bengal and may form into cyclone Amphan by May 16 Photo: IMD
This could trigger a heat wave in Tamil Nadu, and also result in heavy rains over Kerala, parts of Karnataka, Puducherry, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Lakshadweep and the Andaman-Nicobar Islands.

FORMATION OF THE CYCLONE AMPHAN:

  • A low-pressure area over south-east Bay of Bengal and the south Andaman sea — formed on May 13, 2020 morning — may result in the subsequent formation of a cyclone by May 16 evening, according to the India Meteorological Department (IMD).
  • The low-pressure area is likely to move towards central parts of south Bay of Bengal and intensify into a depression by May 15.
  • The cyclone will likely initially move in the north-western direction and then curve towards the north-east.
  • IMD has not given any information about a possible landfall of the cyclone in India or anywhere else yet.
  • This is the second low-pressure area to form in the region in the past two weeks.
  • The intensification of the low-pressure area was delayed and eventually fizzled out, starting from May 6. This was because of a strong vertical shear — the change in winds from the surface to the upper atmosphere that suppress cyclones — according to IMD.

SUPER CYCLONE :

WHY SUPER CYCLONE? 

  • The cyclone AMPHAN intensified into a Super Cyclone around noon today, the 18th May, 2020.

It is a very intense cyclone with associated wind speed of 220-230 kmph.

OTHER SUPER CYCLONES :

  • The other two super cyclones were Cyclone Kyarr in 2019 and Cyclone Gonu in 2007.
  • Cyclone Amphan may bring sea water around 25 kilometres inland because of a storm surge of four to six metres.

HOW THEY MEASURE ?

  • Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) at Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) is used to track speed of the cyclone Amphan.

LANDFALL ?

  • It is expected to cross West Bengal–Bangladesh coasts between Digha(West Bengal) and Hatiya Islands (Bangladesh) close to Sundarbans during afternoon/evening of 20th May 2020.
  • It will hit land as an Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm with wind speed of 165-175 kmph gusting to 195 kmph.
  • It will cause heavy to extremely heavy rainfall over Gangetic West Bengal and heavy to very heavy rainfall over north coastal Odisha on 19th and 20th.
  • Storm surge of about 4-6 meters above astronomical tide is likely to inundate low lying areas of south & north 24 Parganas and about 3-4 meters over the low lying areas of East Medinipur districtofWest Bengalduring the time of landfall.
  • This cyclone has extensive damaging potential. It will cause extensive large scale damage.

DAMAGE AND DESTRUCTION :

(i)    Damage expected over West Bengal (east Medinipur, south & north 24 Parganas, Howrah, Hoogli, Kolkata districts) and action suggested

  • Extensive damage to all types of kutcha houses, some damage to old badly managed Pucca structures. Potential threat from flying objects.
  • Extensive uprooting of communication and power polesDisruption of rail/road link.
  • Extensive damage to standing cropsplantations, orchards.Blowing down of Palm&coconut trees.
  • Uprooting of large bushy trees. Large boats and ships may get torn from their moorings.

FISHERMEN WARNING & ACTION SUGGESTED:

  • Total suspension of fishing operations during 18th to 20th May 2020.
  • Diversion or suspension of rail and road traffic.
  • People in affected areas to remain indoorsMobilise evacuation from Low lying areas.
  • Movement in motor boats and small ships not advisable.

(ii)   Damage expected over Odisha (Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapara, Bhadrak, Balasore, Jajpur & Mayurbhanj)

  • Total destruction of thatched housesextensive damage to kutcha houses. Potential threat from flying objects. Bending/ uprooting of power and communication poles.
  • Major damage to Kutcha and Pucca roads. Minor disruption of railways, overhead power lines and signalling systems.
  • Widespread damage to standing crops, plantations, orchards, falling of green coconuts and tearing of palm fronds. Blowing down of bushy trees like mango.
  • Small boats, country crafts may get detached from moorings.

FISHERMEN WARNING & ACTION SUGGESTED:

· Total suspension of fishing operations during 18th to 20th May 2020.

· Diversion or suspension of rail and road traffic.

· People in affected areas to remain indoors.

· Movement in motor boats and small ships not advisable.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

The rapid intensification of Cyclone Amphan from a cyclone to a super cyclone in about 40 hours might be a sign of a warming Bay of Bengal, a consequence of anthropogenic global warming.

A low-pressure area earlier formed on May 1, but did not further intensify, despite the IMD’s prediction of it intensifying into a depression.

     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

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