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IASbhai Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020-21 is an initiative to dilute major articles from leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Hence we choose articles on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC PRELIMS 2021.

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ORANGE COLOUR: Important for Prelims.

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Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 6th Jan 2021

The cold supply chain can’t reach everywhere


The cold supply chain can’t reach everywhere — that’s a big problem for equitable COVID-19 vaccination

      WHY IN NEWS:

Indian researchers are using an engineered protein fragment that is tolerant of high temperatures

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Infrastructure


To mitigate health inequities and promote social justice, coronavirus vaccines need to get to underserved populations and hard-to-reach communities.


  • In poorer areas, more remote parts of the world and in places where the mean daytime temperature is high and electricity is unavailable or spotty, there are no mechanisms to keep vaccines at low temperatures.
  • There may in fact be no roads – let alone airports — in many of these places either.

And even if roads exist, they may be impassable at certain times of the year or inaccessible for political reasons or because of civil unrest

  • Both the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines need to be kept frozen and must rely on the cold chain to get anywhere.

Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 6th Jan 2021

  • A freeze-dried smallpox vaccine called Dryvax was the first temperature-stable vaccine.


  • Vaccines are coming that do not require ultralow-temperature storage.
  • Some companies, including AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson, are working on vaccines that need only refrigeration as opposed to storage at freezer temperatures.
  • Refrigeration is better than freezing, but for remote locations, room temperature is best, and researchers are working on thermostable COVID-19 vaccines that won’t need refrigeration.
  • Freeze-dried vaccines are one such example.

The first thermostable vaccine was developed for smallpox in 1955 and is credited in part with the ultimate elimination of the disease

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Today, researchers continue to look for innovative ways to stabilise viral vaccines: from air-drying with low-cost sugar films to freeze-drying with different stabilizing agents.
  • Some researchers are also working on stable liquid formulations, in particular live attenuated flu viruses, that avoid the costly process of freeze-drying.
     SOURCES:  DownToEarth  | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 6th Jan 2021 

Your coffee’s carbon footprint


Coffee: here’s the carbon cost of your daily cup – and how to make it climate-friendly

      WHY IN NEWS:

Global coffee demand is expected to triple production by 2050, raising pressure on forests and other habitats in the tropical regions where it’s grown as farmers look for new land to till.



Using less fertiliser, managing water and energy use more efficiently during milling and exporting the beans by cargo ship rather than aeroplane can slash your coffee’s carbon footprint


  • Weight for weight, coffee produced by the least sustainable means generates as much carbon dioxide as cheese and has a carbon footprint only half that of one of the worst offenders — beef.
  • And that’s all before adding milk, which carries its own hefty environmental baggage.
  • Over 9.5 billion kg of coffee is produced around the world each year, with a total trade value of $30.9 billion.
  • Arabica coffee beans baristas are used to make a high-quality brew — from two of the world’s largest producers, Brazil and Vietnam.
  • We found that changing how coffee is grown, transported and consumed can slash the crop’s carbon emissions by up to 77 per cent.


Growing a single kilogram of Arabica coffee in either country and exporting it to the UK produces greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to 15.33 kg of carbon dioxide on average.

  • That’s raw, pre-roasted beans (otherwise known as “green coffee”) produced using conventional methods.
Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 6th Jan 2021


      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Opting for oat milk or other non-dairy alternatives can help coffee drinkers lower their carbon footprint.
  • One way to do that would be including our recommendations for growing more climate-friendly coffee, so that people can buy certified coffee with confidence that their daily luxury isn’t costing the Earth.The Conversation
     SOURCES:  DownToEarth  | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 6th Jan 2021 




      WHY IN NEWS:

The expert committee constituted by Director General of Health Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, has concluded that SwasthVayu may be used on Covid-19 patients who require oxygen supplementation up to 35%.

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Recent Developments


To address the shortages of ventilators in the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic (NAL) scientists indigenously designed and developed the non-invasive bi-level positive airway pressure ventilator –SwasthVayu.


Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 6th Jan 2021


Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and National Aerospace Laboratories(NAL)


  • SwasthVayu developed by CSIR-NAL is a microcontroller based precise closed-loop adaptive control system.

It comes with a built-in biocompatible “3D printed manifold and coupler” with HEPA filter (Highly Efficient Particulate Air Filter)

  • It has features like CPAP, Bi-Timed, Spontaneous / AUTO modes with provision to connect Oxygen concentrator or Enrichment unit externally.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • These unique features help to alleviate the fear of the virus spread.
  • CSIR-NAL has commercialized this technology with six private companies.
     SOURCES:   IE   | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 6th Jan 2021 

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