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IASbhai Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020-21 is an initiative to dilute major articles from leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Hence we choose articles on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC PRELIMS 2021.

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HIGHLIGHT INFO:

ORANGE COLOUR: Important for Prelims.

RED COLOUR: Important for Mains.

BLACK COLOUR: Must Read !

BLUE COLOUR : Important Links/Survey.

PINK COLOUR: Reports/Themes/Summits.

Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 23rd Dec 2020

Air pollution killed 1.7 million Indians in 2019

      HEADLINES:

Air pollution killed 1.7 million Indians in 2019: Lancet report

      WHY IN NEWS:

Death rate from outdoor ambient air pollution up 115% in 2 decades, flags Lancet Planetary Health report

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Reports

      ISSUE: 

Some 1.7 million Indians died due to air pollution in 2019, according to a report by interdisciplinary journal Lancet Planetary Health.

LANCET PLANETARY HEALTH REPORT

KEY POINTS

  • The toll in India was 18 per cent of the total deaths in the country, claimed the report released December 21, 2020.

The bad news is that outdoor air pollution, or ambient air pollution, is not only increasing but also killing more.

  • India has lost 1.4 per cent of GDP due to premature deaths and morbidity from air pollution.
  • It is equivalent to Rs 2,60,000 crore in monetary term — more than four times of the allocation for healthcare in the Union budget for 2020-21.
  • Lung diseases caused by air pollution accounted for the highest share — 36.6 per cent — in the total economic losses.

OBSERVATIONS

  • The economic loss due to air pollution as a percentage of the state GDP was higher in the northern and central India states, with the highest in Uttar Pradesh (2.2 per cent of GDP) and Bihar (2 per cent of GDP).

Delhi had the highest per-capita economic loss due to air pollution, followed by Haryana in 2019.

  • In term of economic losses attributable to indoor air pollution ranged, Goa had the least loss at $7.6 million and  UP the highest at $1829·6 million.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • It is imperative that policy makers at the local and national levels take decisive steps to address this serious threat to public health.
  • Various government schemes such as the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana and the Unnat Chulha Abhiyan have aided in reducing household air pollution in India.
     SOURCES:  DownToEarth   | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 23rd Dec 2020

World to breach 1.5°C threshold by 2027-2042

      HEADLINES:

World to breach 1.5°C threshold by 2027-2042: Study

      WHY IN NEWS:

The study was published in Climate Dynamics December 18, 2020, according to which prediction model deployed reduced uncertainties by half compared to the approach used by the IPCC.

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3 : Climate change

      ISSUE: 

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change had estimated global warming threshold will cross between 2020 and 2052.

GLOBAL WARMING AND THRESHOLDS

  • The world will heat up more than it can take much earlier than anticipated.

The planet will breach the threshold of 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels between 2027 and 2042.

  • The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) had estimated that breach to occur between now and 2052.
  • The IPCC uses the General Circulation Models (GCM) to express wide ranges in overall temperature projections.

MATHEMATICAL MODELLING

  • This makes it difficult to circle outcomes in different climate mitigation scenarios.

EXAMPLE
IPCC model would predict a temperature increase of a massive range — between 1.9oC  and 4.5oC — if carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is doubled.

  • Climate models are mathematical simulations of different factors that interact to affect Earth’s climate, such as the atmosphere, ocean, ice, land surface and the sun.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The data is tricky, and predictions can more often than not be inaccurate.
  • The researchers also found that expected warming was a little lower in this period by about 10 to 15 per cent.
  • Climate sceptics have argued that global warming projections are unreliable because they depend on faulty supercomputer models.
     SOURCES:  DownToEarth  | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 23rd Dec 2020

States told to update Census register

      HEADLINES:

States told to update Census register

      WHY IN NEWS:

This will help enumerators collect details during first phase of the exercise

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2 : Census

      ISSUE: 

The office of the RGI had in a Right To Information (RTI) reply in November said the information about the expected date of first phase of Census 2021 was “not available.”

CENSUS 2021

  • The Registrar General of India (RGI) conducts the decennial Census exercise in India.
  • It is an important census document that will help enumerators to collect details during the first phase of Census-House Listing and Housing Census and the National Population Register (NPR).
  • While the dates of the first phase of the Census, initially to be rolled out in some States on April 1, has not been finalised.
  • The letter may be an indication to start the exercise that was postponed indefinitely due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

CHARGE REGISTER

  • RGI has written to all State coordinators to update names of an area, locality, colony or a building in the “charge register”.

The charge register shows the distribution of work among enumerators and marks the House Listing Blocks (HLB) to be visited by each official.

  • Each HLB, the primary unit for collection of data, can comprise an estimated present population of only 650 to 800.
  • The register will also be used for the field work relating to the updating of NPR since the same functionaries would be engaged for both the exercises.
  • Around 30 lakh enumerators — government officials and government schoolteachers — will each be assigned the responsibility to collect the details of 650 to 800 people through both online and offline mode.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The NPR’s link with the proposed National Register of Citizens and the yet to be implemented Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019 has been opposed by as many as 13 States and Union Territories.
  • According to the Citizenship Rules framed in the year 2003, NPR is the first step towards compilation of the National Register of Indian Citizens or NRC.
     SOURCES:  THE HINDU  | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 23rd Dec 2020

Development Finance Institution (DFI)

      HEADLINES:

Centre to set up development finance entity in 3-4 months’Infra needs patient capital, banks not ideal for long-term projects: DFS Secretary

      WHY IN NEWS:

The DFI will be a catalyst, and would fund projects where others are not willing to enter because of the risks involved

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Economy

      ISSUE: 

The government plans to set up a Development Finance Institution (DFI) to mobilise the ₹111 lakh crore required for funding of the ambitious national infrastructure pipeline.

DEVELOPMENT FINANCE INSTITUTION

  • development finance institution (DFI) also known as a development bank or development finance company (DFC).

It is a financial institution that provides risk capital for economic development projects on non commercial basis.

  • They are often established and owned by governments or charitable institutions to provide funds for projects that would otherwise not be able to get funds from commercial lenders.
  • Some development banks include socially responsible investing and impact investing criteria into their mandates.
  • Governments often use development banks to form part of their development aid or economic development initiatives.

DEVELOPMENT BANKS INCLUDE

  • Community development banks which fund low-income areas in the United States
  • International financial institutions conducting development-oriented finance on a bilateral or multilateral basis
  • National development banks are government-owned financial institution that provides financing for economic development.
  • Multilateral development bank are development banks set up by a group of countries and often operate under international laws.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The DFI should become a reality may be by the end of the current financial year or early next year.
     SOURCES:  THE HINDU | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 23rd Dec 2020

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