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IASbhai Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020-21 is an initiative to dilute major articles from leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Hence we choose articles on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC PRELIMS 2021.

“It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop.” – Confucius

HIGHLIGHT INFO:

ORANGE COLOUR: Important for Prelims.

RED COLOUR: Important for Mains.

BLACK COLOUR: Must Read !

BLUE COLOUR : Important Links/Survey.

PINK COLOUR: Reports/Themes/Summits.

Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 10th Dec 2020

Today's Must Read Articles : Today's Must Read Articles :

Meat residue found in Indus Valley

      HEADLINES:

Cattle, buffalo meat residue found in Indus Valley vessels

      WHY IN NEWS:

The study, which was published on Wednesday in the Journal of Archaeological Science and conducted as a part of the Two Rains project of the University of Cambridge and Banaras Hindu University, analysed the lipid residue in pottery found at the ancient sites.

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Culture
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 1 : History : IVC

      ISSUE: 

The remains found at the Indus Valley site in Rakhi-garhi, Haryana, in 2017.

Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 10th Dec 2020

IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS

  • A new study has found the presence of animal products, including cattle and buffalo meat, in ceramic vessels dating back about 4,600 years at seven Indus Valley Civilisation sites.
  • These sites are in present-day Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

This is the first such study of absorbed lipid residue in pottery.

OBSERVATION
About 50-60% of domestic animal bones found at Indus Valley sites come from cattle/buffalo.

  • The high proportions of cattle bones may suggest a cultural preference for beef consumption across Indus populations, supplemented by the consumption of mutton/lamb.

CRITICAL VIEWPOINTS

  • The study also talks of a diversity of plant products and regional variation in cropping practices.
  • Both summer and winter-based cropping was practiced.
  • Evidence of barley, wheat, rice, different varieties of millets, a range of winter and summer pulses, oilseed and fruit and vegetables, including brinjal, cucumber, grapes, date palm were grown and consumed.

Out of domestic animals, cattle/buffalo are the most abundant, averaging between 50% and 60% of the animal bones found, with sheep/goat accounting for 10% animal remains.

  • The high proportions of cattle bones may suggest a cultural preference for beef consumption across Indus populations, supplemented by consumption of mutton/lamb.
  • It says that at Harappa, 90% of the cattle were kept alive until they were three or three-and-a-half years, suggesting that females were used for dairying production, whereas male animals were used for traction.
  • Wild animal species like deer, antelope, gazelle, hares, birds, and riverine/marine resources are also found in small proportions

LIPID ANALYSIS

  • The study of lipid residues in Indus pottery shows a dominance of animal products in vessels.
  • The meat of non-ruminant animals like pigs, ruminant animals like cattle or buffalo and sheep or goat, as well as dairy products was found.

The analysis of lipid residues involved extraction and identification of the fats and oils that were absorbed in the vessels.

  • Lipids are relatively less prone to degradation and have been discovered in pottery from archaeological contexts around the world.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Ceramic lipid residue analysis provides a powerful means by which foodways of populations can be examined.
  • Lipid analysis has been used in a range of archaeological contexts around the world.
  • Archeologists noted that they have seen very limited investigation in ancient ceramics from South Asia.
SUGGESTED READING : DAIRY FARMING IN IVC 
     SOURCES:  THE HINDU | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 10th Dec 2020

Atmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana (ABRY)

      HEADLINES:

Cabinet approves Atmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana (ABRY)

      WHY IN NEWS:

The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, has given its approval for Atmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana (ABRY).

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Labour & Employment
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Schemes

      ISSUE: 

ATMANIRBHAR BHARAT ROJGAR YOJANA (ABRY)

AIM

Atmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana (ABRY) is aimed at boosting employment in formal sector.

  • The scheme is focussed on incentivizing creation of new employment opportunities during the Covid recovery phase under Atmanirbhar Bharat Package 3.0.

TIMELINE AND OUTLAY

Cabinet has approved an expenditure of Rs. 1,584 crore for the current financial year and Rs.22,810 crore for the entire Scheme period i.e. 2020-2023.

SALIENT FEATURES

  • Government of India will provide subsidy for two years in respect of new employees engaged on or after 1st October, 2020 and upto 30th June, 2021
  • Government of India will pay both 12% employees’ contribution and 12% employers’ contribution i.e.  24% of wages towards EPF in respect of new employees in establishments employing upto 1000 employees for two years.
  • Government of India will pay only employees’ share of EPF contribution i.e. 12% of wages in respect of new employees in establishments employing more than 1000 employee for two years.

ELIGIBILITY

  • An employee drawing monthly wage of less than Rs. 15000/- who was not working in any establishment registered with the Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) before 1st October, 2020 and did not have a Universal Account Number or EPF Member account number prior to 1stOctober 2020 will be eligible for the benefit.
  • Any EPF member possessing Universal Account Number (UAN) drawing monthly wage of less than Rs. 15000/- who made exit from employment during Covid pandemic from 01.03.2020 to 30.09.2020 and did not join employment in any EPF covered establishment up to 30.09.2020 will also be eligible to avail benefit,
  • EPFO will credit the contribution in Aadhaar seeded account of members in electronic manner.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • EPFO shall develop a software for the scheme and also develop a procedure which is transparent and accountable at their end.
  • EPFO shall work out modality to ensure that there is no overlapping of benefits provided under ABRY with any other scheme implemented by EPFO.
     SOURCES:  PIB  | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 10th Dec 2020

Submarine Optical Fibre Cable Connectivity Project

      HEADLINES:

Cabinet approves Provision of Submarine Optical Fibre Cable Connectivity between Mainland (Kochi) and Lakshadweep Islands (KLI Project)

      WHY IN NEWS:

The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi, has given its approval for Provision of Submarine Optical Fibre Cable Connectivity between Mainland (Kochi) and Lakshadweep Islands (KLI Project).

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Communications
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Technology : OFC Connectivity

      ISSUE: 

KLI SUBMARINE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE CONNECTIVITY PROJECT

  • The Project envisages provision of a direct communication link through a dedicated submarine Optical Fibre Cable (OFC) between Kochi and 11 Islands of Lakshadweep viz.

11 ISLANDS
Kavaratti, Kalpeni, Agati, Amini, Androth, Minicoy, Bangaram, Bitra, Chetlat, Kiltan&Kadmat.

FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS

The estimated cost of implementation is about Rs. 1072 crore including operational expenses for 5 years.

  • The Project would be funded by Universal Service Obligation Fund.

IMPACT

  • It is evident that the growth of telecom infrastructure is closely linked with the economic and social development.

Telecommunication connectivity plays vital role in employment generation.

  • The present approval for Provision of Submarine Optical Fibre Cable Connectivity will vastly improve telecommunication facility in the Lakshadweep Islands by providing large bandwidth.

SIGNIFICANCE

The submarine connectivity project will have vital role for:

  • Delivery of e-Governance services at the doorstep of citizens
  • Potential development of fisheries
  • Coconut based industries and high-value tourism

Educational development in term of tele-education and in health care in terms of telemedicine facilities.
 

  • It will help in establishment of numerous businesses, augment e-commerce activities and provide adequate support to educational institutes for knowledge sharing.
  • The Lakshadweep Islands have the potential to become a hub of logistic services.

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY & TARGETS

(BSNL) has been nominated as Project Execution Agency and Telecommunications Consultant India Ltd.

  • (TCIL) as the Technical Consultant of the Project to assist Universal Service Obligation Fund, Department of Telecommunications.
  • The ownership of the asset under the project will rest with USOF, the funding agency, under DoT.
  • The project is targeted to be completed by May 2023.

BACKGROUND

  • Union Territory of Lakshadweep comprising a number of Islands is situated in the Arabian Sea and of immense strategic significance for India.

Provision of secure, robust, reliable and affordable Telecom facilities is of utmost importance for the people living in these islands.

  • Presently only medium of providing telecom connectivity to Lakshadweep is through satellites, but the bandwidth available is limited to 1 Gbps.
  • Lack of bandwidth is a major constraint in providing data services, which is a pre-requisite for providing e-governance, e-education, e-banking etc.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • High bandwidth communication facility to the Lakshadweep Islands is also in consonance with realising the national objective of strengthening e-governance services and achieving the vision of Digital India.
     SOURCES:   PIB  | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 10th Dec 2020

PM-WANI

      HEADLINES:

Cabinet approves setting up of Public Wi-Fi Networks by Public Data Office Aggregators to provide public Wi-Fi service through Public Data Offices without levy of any License Fee

      WHY IN NEWS:

Hot from PIB !

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Communications
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Science and Technology : Communication

      ISSUE: 

PM-WANI

  • The Cabinet has given its approval forthe proposal of DoT for setting up of Public Wi-Fi Networks by Public Data Office Aggregators (PDOAs).
  • This Public Wi-Fi Access Network Interface will be known as PM-WANI.

AIM

  • The aim is to provide public Wi-Fi service through Public Data Offices (PDOs) spread across length and breadth of the country.

There shall be no license fee for providing Broadband Internet through these public Wi-Fi networks.

  • It will help in proliferation of Broadband Internet, enhancement of income and employment and empowerment of people.

SALIENT FEATURES

PM-WANI eco-system will be operated by different players as described herein under:

  • PUBLIC DATA OFFICE (PDO) : It will establish, maintain, and operate only WANI compliant Wi-Fi Access Points and deliver broadband services to subscribers.
  • PUBLIC DATA OFFICE AGGREGATOR (PDOA) : It will be an aggregator of PDOs and perform the functions relating to Authorization and Accounting.
  • APP PROVIDER : It will develop an App to register users and discover WANI compliant Wi-Fi hotspots in the nearby area and display the same within the App for accessing the internet service.
  • CENTRAL REGISTRY : It will maintain the details of App Providers, PDOAs, and PDOs.

To begin with, the Central Registry will be maintained by C-DoT.

OBJECTIVES

  • No registration would be required for PDOs, PDOAs and App Providers.
  • They will get themselves registered with DoT through online registration portal (SARALSANCHAR) of DoT, without paying any registration fee.
  • Registration shall be granted within 7 days of the application.
  • This is expected to be more business friendly and in line with efforts for ease of doing business.

COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated delivery of stable and high speed Broadband Internet (data) services to an increasingly large number of subscribers in the country.

  • This can be achieved by deployment of Public Wi-Fi.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The proliferation of public Wi-Fi will not only create employment but also enhance disposable incomes in the hands of small and medium entrepreneurs and boost the GDP of the country.
     SOURCES:  PIB | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 10th Dec 2020

Department of Integrative Medicine

      HEADLINES:

Ministry of AYUSH and AIIMS decides to work together to set up a Department of Integrative Medicine

      WHY IN NEWS:

Hot from PIB !

MINISTRY? :-Ministry of AYUSH
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2 : Governance

      ISSUE: 

Ministry of AYUSH and AIIMS have decided to initiate work on setting up a Department of Integrative Medicine at AIIMS.

DEPARTMENT OF INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE

KEYPOINTS

  • The Centre for Integrative Medicine and Research (CIMR) receives notable support through the Centre of Excellence Scheme of the Ministry of AYUSH.

The cutting edge research activities being held by CIMR in the Yoga and Ayurveda disciplines were reviewed and the research outcomes were seen to be impressive.

  • Ministry of AYUSH and AIIMS decided to extend the duration of the research collaboration at CIMR and also to extend the scope of collaborative activities.
  • A dedicated OPD and IPD beds for CIMR could be the next steps in the growth and development of CIMR.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • CIMR and the growing body of research work of the Centre it could be feasible to further develop it into a standalone Department for Integrative Medicine at AIIMS in the short-term future.
  • This may be developed with dedicated faculty and staff to make it into a permanent Department at AIIMS.
     SOURCES:  PIB  | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 10th Dec 2020

Submarine Day :  INS Kalvari

      HEADLINES:

Submarine Day, celebrating the memory of INS Kalvari

      WHY IN NEWS:

INS Kalvari was a diesel-electric submarine of the Foxtrot Class from the erstwhile USSR.

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Defence
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Defence

      ISSUE: 

CLASS

Indian Naval Ship (INS) Vagir is the fifth among the six Kalvari-class submarines being constructed by the public sector shipbuilder Mazagon Dock Ltd (MDL) in Mumbai.

Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 10th Dec 2020

FEATURES

  • It was a 91.3-metre-long submarine, which carried a crew of 75.
  • It had a surface speed of 16 knots while the submerged speed was 15 knots.

It was on December 8 that the Indian Naval Ensign was unfurled on INS Kalvari, the first submarine to be inducted in the Indian Navy, at Riga in Latvia, the erstwhile USSR, in 1967.

  • Kalvari is the Malayalam name for Tiger Shark, a predator in the Indian Ocean.
  • The Kalvari was decommissioned in 1996 after 29 years of service.

WHAT KIND OF SUBMARINE WAS INS KALVARI?

  • INS Kalvari was a diesel-electric submarine of the Foxtrot Class from the erstwhile USSR.
  • It had a range of 32,000 km at a speed of 8 knots when on surface and a submerged range of 610 km at a speed of 10 knots.
  • It could carry 22 torpedoes and 42 mines in lieu of torpedoes.
  • Commander KS Subramanian, the first Commanding Officer of INS Kalvari, brought the submarine from St Petersberg in Russia to Vishakhapatnam in India.

After INS Kalvari, three more submarines — Karanj, Khanderi and Kursura — were commissioned in the Indian Navy along with submarine support vehicle Amba.

  • A submarine rescue ship, INS Nistar, was also commissioned in 1972.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

PRESENT KALVARI CLASS SUBMARINES IN INDIAN NAVY

  • The Indian Navy is inducting several submarines in Kalvari Class, named after the very first submarine inducted into service.

INS Kalvari, a diesel-electric submarine of Scorpene-class, was inducted into service in 2017 after having being built at the Mazagon dock in Mumbai.

  • The other submarines slated to join service under this class are Vela, Karanj, Vaghir and Vaghsheer.
  • It has been designed by French company DCNS.
  • INS Khanderi is the other submarine of Kalvari class currently in service.
     SOURCES:  IE | Current Affairs News Analysis for UPSC | 10th Dec 2020

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