IASbhai DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC (THE HINDU+LIVEMINT+PIB)

Dear Aspirants
IASbhai Daily Current Affairs for UPSC is an initiative to dilute major articles from leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Hence we choose articles on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC PRELIMS2020.

When one door of happiness closes, another opens, but often we look so long at the closed door that we do not see the one that has been opened for us.– Helen Keller

HIGHLIGHT INFO:

ORANGE COLOUR: Important for Prelims.

RED COLOUR: Important for Mains.

BLACK COLOUR: Must Read !

BLUE COLOUR : Important Links/Survey.

PINK COLOUR: Reports/Themes/Summits.

DARPG’s National Monitoring Dashboard on COVID 19

      HEADLINES:

Dr. Jitendra Singh launches DARPG’s (Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances) National Monitoring Dashboard on COVID 19 Grievances

      WHY IN NEWS:

Hot from PIB!

MINISTRY? :-Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health:Diseases

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS understand this initiative and note down the type of grievances and remember the portal name !

For MAINS nothing much here !

      ISSUE: 

The National Monitoring Dashboard was developed and implemented at https://darpg.gov.in where COVID 19 related grievances received in CPGRAMS with all Ministries/ Departments and States/ Union Territories are monitored on priority basis by a technical team of DARPG.

NATIONAL MONITORING DASHBOARD

AIM:

The National Monitoring Dashboard was developed by DARPG in pursuance of the recommendations of the  Empowered Group of Officers 10 constituted under the Disaster Management Act 2005 on Public Grievances and Suggestions to ensure timely implementation of COVID 19 Response Activities.

State will  ensure timely redressal of COVID 19 grievances and directions have been issued to all Ministries/ Departments to prioritize these grievances and provide redressal in a period of 3 days.

STATUS:

262 grievances of Central Government and 83 grievances of State Governments received on Day 1, and directed officers in the DARPG to pursue with line ministries and State Governments.

NATURE OF GRIEVANCES:

The nature of grievances related to quarantine facilities, lockdown not being adhered to complaints, essential supplies related complaints, examination related complaints, rescheduling of interest repayments on loans, evacuation requests from foreign countries etc.

The portal will be updated and monitored at senior levels in Government on a daily basis.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Within 2 days the National Monitor was operationalized and 62 Citizen’s Grievances were redressed.

SUGGESTED READING : https://darpg.gov.in
     SOURCES:THE HINDU/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

Coating  may prevent transmission of infection

      HEADLINES:

Coating developed by JNCASR may prevent transmission of infection

      WHY IN NEWS:

Hot from PIB!

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Science & Technology
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health:Diseases

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS understaand the principle of anti microbial coating and this recent innovation.

For MAINS still this process is in evolution mode ! Lets wait and watch !

      ISSUE: 

Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), an autonomous institution under the Department of Science and Technology, has developed a one-step curable anti-microbial coating which, when coated on different surfaces such as textile, plastic and so on could kill a range of virus types including COVID 19.

KEY POINTS:

This covalent coating, the research paper about which has been accepted in the journal Applied Material and Interfaces, has been found to completely kill influenza virus as well as resistant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and fluconazole-resistant C. albicans spp.

  • Corona virus, like influenza, is also an enveloped virus.
  • It is anticipated that the coating may inactivate SARS-CoV-2 upon contact and can help prevent contamination if coated on various surfaces.
“Till date, to the best of our knowledge, there is no covalent coating strategy which can kill all viruses, bacteria and fungi,” .

FEATURES OF COATING:

  • The coating can be fabricated on a variety of surfaces, and its ease and robustness eliminate the necessity of skilled personnel for procurement of the coating.
  • The molecules developed have an ability to chemically cross-link with different surfaces upon UV irradiation.
  • Upon the formation of the coating, it has been shown to permeabilize the membranes of pathogens (i.e. bacteria) leading to their inactivation.
  • Microbial attachment and their colony formation on different surfaces play a major role in the transmission of deadly infections in the community as well as healthcare settings.

PRINCIPLE:

  • Molecules were designed, keeping in mind their optimum solubility in a wide range of solvents (such as water, ethanol, chloroform etc.) and a cost-effective three to four-step synthetic strategy with easy purification and high yield.
  • The molecules were then immobilized on different substrates such as cotton, polyurethane, polypropylene, polystyrene, etc., which construct majority of the objects we see around us.
In brief, for coating on cotton, the sheets were dipped in a water solution of the compounds whereas, for other cases, ethanolic substrates were drop-casted on them followed by UV irradiation.
  • After coating, the surfaces were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Considering the current corona virus outbreak, if shown to be active, the molecule can be synthesized in large scale through a CRO (Contract Research Organization) and can be coated on various personal protective tools such as masks, gloves, gowns, etc. in collaboration with the private organizations.

The molecules can also be coated on other medical devices and tools to avoid hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections.

     SOURCES:THE HINDU/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

What do we know and what do we need to know about Novel Coronavirus

      HEADLINES:

What do we know and what do we need to know about Novel Coronavirus

      WHY IN NEWS:

Lets wind everything up in one single article ! This is what you will ever need .

MINISTRY? :-Ministry of Science & Technology
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health:Diseases

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS and MAINS you will find all the myths busted here !

      ISSUE: 

Many things about Novel Coronavirus are spreading rapidly through social media, WhatsApp and the Internet. Some of these could be true, but many of those informations are baseless.

At a time when the coronavirus epidemic is spreading across the world, it is important to know about some facts related to this deadly virus.  A senior scientist in Vigyan Prasar.  Dr. TV Venkateswaran  after various research findings, tells us more about it.

FREQUENTLY ASKED FAQ ON COVID-19:

WHAT IS THIS INFECTION:?

  • The virus infects the epithelial cells in the throat and lungs.
  • SARS-CoV-2 binds to the ACE2 receptors on human cells, which are often found mostly in throats and lungs.
  • Virus on your skin, lacking ACE2 expression, will be harmless.
  • The virus enters through the by nasal passage, eyes and mouth.
  • Our hands are the main instruments that take the virus to reach our mouth, nose and eyes.
  • Washing hands with soap water for 20 seconds as often as possible helps prevent the infection.

INFECTIOUS DOSAGE: 

  • A dose of 700000 PFU was needed to infect a Macaque.
  • PFU (Plaque forming unit) is a unit of measurement of sample infectivity.
  • Although the animal did not show any clinical symptoms, the droplets from the nose and the saliva had a viral load.
  • Humans will need a higher dosage than 700000 PFU to get infected.
  • An animal study on the genetically modified mice with ACE2 receptors showed that it could be infected with SARS with just 240 PFU.
  • In comparison, it required 70,000 PFU of novel coronavirus to get infected.

INFECTIOUS PERIOD: 

  • Length of time an individual can transmit the infection to others is not known precisely, but possibly up to 10-14 days.
  • Artificially reducing the contagious period is a crucial method of reducing overall transmission.
  • Hospitalisation, isolation, lockdown and quarantine are all effective methods.

WHO CAN INFECT:

  • Anyone infected with the virus can infect even before the symptoms appear.
  • Most carriers do not even show signs.
  • Covering our mouth and nose when we cough or sneeze will help reduce the infection.
  • The virus is present in the saliva, sputum and faeces of the infected person for the whole infectious period.

HOW WE INFECT:

  • Transmission is mostly via droplets.
  • This requires relatively close contact, less than 6 feet.
  • This is why it is recommended that we stay 1.5 metres away from each other in public places such as the vegetable market or supermarket.
  • A study done in Hong Kong shows that social distancing can reduce the spread by 44%.
  • Inanimate vector of disease, in particular phones, doorknobs, surfaces are a potential source for transmission, but not much is known about it.
  • It is safe sanitise out hands after touching doorknobs, lift call buttons and counters in public places.

HOW MANY WE INFECT:

  •  The average number of new infections caused by a typical infectious person, that is human transmissibility range (R0) is between 2.2 to 3.1.
  • By physical distancing, we can artificially reduce the actual transmissibility, thus slow the rate of infection.

WHERE DID THE VIRUS COME FROM:

  • It is not from eating bat soup.
  • Once you boil, the virus is decimated.
  • Initially, it was speculated that the SARS-CoV-2 virus jumped from bat to humans.
  • But recent genomes study show first it must have leapt from bat to an intermediary species before it latched on to humans.
  • Another study indicates that a lineage of SARS-CoV-2 virus was circulating in humans before the disease outbreak.

HOW IT EVOLVED:

  • SARS-CoV-2 has emerged either by natural selection of virulent strain in a non-human animal host before zoonotic transfer to humans or natural selection of virulent strain in humans following a zoonotic transmission.
  • Only more studies will show which of the two is right.
  • We still are not clear what are the mutations in SARS-CoV-2 that allowed human infection and transmission.

WHEN DID  SARS-COV2 EMERGE:

  • While here have been no documented cases of SARS-CoV2 before December 2019.
  • However, preliminary genomic analyses suggest that the first human cases of SARS-CoV-2 appeared between mid-October and mid-December 2019.
  • This means there was a period of unrecognised transmission in humans between the primary zoonotic event and the outbreak.

CAN IT INFECT ANIMALS:

  • The molecular modelling suggests that SARS-CoV-2 can affect besides human, bat, civet, monkey and swine cells.
  • Does not infect domestic animals or livestock.
  • Consuming eggs or poultry will not result in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

CAN ONE BE INFECTED TWICE:

  • Once we get measles, most of us acquire life long immunity.
  • We hardly get measles again.
  • Experimentally infected macaques were not capable of being reinfected.
  • Likewise, there is no evidence of reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 after recovery in humans.
  • However, how long the immunity will last is unknown.

HOW SEVERE IS THE ILLNESS:

  • COVID-19 is not a death sentence.
  • The majority of COVID-19 cases are mild (81%), About 15% need hospitalisation and 5% require critical care.
  • That is the vast majority of the infected will not even need hospitalisation.

WHO ARE THE MOST VULNERABLE:

  • Healthcare workers are most susceptible.
  • About 20% of healthcare workers in Lombardy, Italy becoming infected while providing medical care to patients.
  • Among the general public, aged, in particular above 60 years of age and people with prior cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and respiratory conditions have a higher risk.

WHAT IS THE CAUSE OF THE DEATH:

  •  Most of the deaths is caused by respiratory failure or respiratory failure combined with heart damage.
  • Leakage of fluid into the lungs, which inhibits respiration and leads to morbidity, is the primary clinical condition.
  • At present, the treatment for COVID-19 is primarily supportive care, including ventilation if necessary.
  • Several therapeutic trials are ongoing, and the results are awaited.

ARE THE VIRUS TRANSMITTED BY MILK SACHETS, OR NEWSPAPERS:

  • SARS-CoV-2 can persist on plastic and stainless steel surfaces for up to 3 days.
  • When the viral load was 10000 PFU, it lasted on newspaper and cotton cloth only for 5 minutes.
  • Washing the milk sachets is adequate to remove the virus.

WILL IT SPREAD THROUGH THE AIR:

  • In the air, the virus can survive only up to 2.7 hours.
  • Therefore being in open spaces such as a balcony, the terrace is no harm.

IS THERE A LESS VIRULENT STRAIN:

  • While many strains are being identified, studies so far have not indicated any mutations that are linked to any changes in transmission or disease severity.

WILL, THE ONSET OF SUMMER OR RAINY SEASON, GIVES RESPITE:

  • No strong evidence exists showing a reduction in transmission with the seasonal increase in temperature and humidity.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

And thats it let us know if you have any more questions at your side .

     SOURCES:THE HINDU/PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

Centre defines J&K domicile rules

      HEADLINES:

Centre defines J&K domicile rules

      WHY IN NEWS:

Move aimed at protecting jobs in Group D category

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2:Citizenship

      ISSUE: 

The Union government has issued a notification defining “domiciles” in the new Union Territory (UT) of Jammu and Kashmir for protecting jobs in the Group D category and entry-level non-gazetted posts for the domiciles.

 

On August 6 last, the Centre withdrew J&K’s special status under Article 370 and Article 35A of the Constitution and bifurcated it into the UTs of J&K and Ladakh.

 

CHANGES IN PSA

Tuesday’s notification of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) makes changes to the Public Safety Act (PSA) by removing a clause that prohibited J&K residents booked under the Act to be lodged in jails outside.

  • The notification scraps all pension benefits such as car, driver, accommodation, phones, electricity, medical facilities and rent-free accommodation to former J&K Chief Ministers.
  • The order says the domiciles will be eligible “for the purposes of appointment to any post carrying a pay scale of not more than Level 4”.
  • The Level 4 post comprises positions such as gardeners, barbers, office peons and waterman, and the highest rank in the category is that of a junior assistant.
  • A senior government official said the reservation for domiciles would not apply to Group A and Group B posts, and like other UTs, recruitment would be done by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC).
  • “This is according to the norms in other UTs and States. Recruitment by the UPSC expands the search for talent across the country,” .

VACANCIES IN POSTS

According to the MHA’s reply to a parliamentary panel on February 18, there are more than 84,000 vacancies in J&K, of which 22,078 pertain to Class IV employees, 54,375 to non-gazetted and 7,552 at the gazetted level.

The order defines a domicile as one “who has resided for a period of 15 years in the UT of J&K or has studied for a period of seven years and appeared in Class 10th /12th examination in an educational institution located in the UT of J&K or who is registered as a migrant by the Relief and Rehabilitation Commissioner (Migrants).’’
  • Under the 2010 Act, the clause for “permanent resident of the State” has been substituted by “Domicile” of the Union Territory.
  • The Act pertained to employment in the civil services, comprising “district, divisional and State” cadre posts.
  • Only permanent residents of J&K were eligible to apply for the gazetted and non-gazetted posts.
  • The amendment allows non-domiciles to apply to these posts.
  • Children of Central Govt. officials, All India Services, PSUs, autonomous body of Centre, Public Sector Banks, officials of statutory bodies, Central Universities, recognised research institutes of Centre who have served in J&K for a total period of 10 yearswill be domiciles.
  • The Jammu and Kashmir State Legislature Members’ Pension Act, 1984, has been amended by the MHA.

It fixes the pension for former legislators and councillors at ₹75,000 a month.

CHANGES IN PSA

The MHA order has also made amendments to the PSA, 1978.

  • It changes the criteria for appointing the PSA advisory board on the recommendation of a search committee headed by the Chief Secretary instead of the Chief Justice of the J&K High Court.
  • It also bars sitting High Court judges to be made part of the board without the Chief justice’s consultation.
  • The board has a crucial role to play in release of detenus.

The order scraps a clause that dealt with the power to regulate place and conditions of detention.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

The domicile status applies to “children of such residents of J&K who reside outside J&K in connection with their employment or business or other professional or vocational reasons but their parents should fulfil any of the conditions provided”.

There are 12 States, including Himachal Pradesh, where provisions of special status under Article 371 apply.

The provisions pertain to regulation of ownership and land transfer in order to conserve the limited resources and to ensure that the State preserves its unique identity.

     SOURCES:THE HINDU/PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

RBI relaxes export rules

      HEADLINES:

RBI relaxes export rules, allows States and UTs to borrow more

      WHY IN NEWS:

Sets up panel to review ways and means advances limit for States

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:RBI
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has announced more measures to fight economic disruptions caused by COVID-19, including extension of the realisation period of export proceeds and allowing States to borrow more.

 

In the interim: Pending submission of the report, RBI has raised the ways and means advances limit by 30%.

 

“Presently, the value of the goods or software exports made by exporters is required to be realised fully and repatriated to the country within nine months from the date of exports.

  • “In view of the disruption caused by the pandemic, the time period for realisation and repatriation of export proceeds for exports made up to or on July 31, 2020, has been extended to 15 months from the date of export,” the RBI said.
  • The measure will enable exporters to realise their receipts, especially from COVID-19 affected countries, within the extended period, and also provide greater flexibility to exporters to negotiate future export contracts with buyers abroad.
  • The central bank has also formed an advisory committee to review the ways and means limit for State governments and union territories.
  • Till the panel submits its report, the central bank has increased the ways and means advances limit by 30% for States and union territories.
  • The ‘Ways and Means Advances’ is a scheme that helps meet mismatches in receipts and payments of the government.
  • Under this scheme, a government can avail itself of immediate cash from the RBI.
Ways and means advances (WMA) is a mechanism used by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) under its credit policy to provide to States, banking with it, to help them tide over temporary mismatches in the cash flow of their receipts and payments. This is guided under Section 17(5) of RBI Act, 1934, and are repayable in each case not later than three months from the date of making that advance’.

The central bank has also deferred the implementation of counter cyclical capital buffer (CCyB) for banks.

The countercyclical capital buffer (CCyB) is part of a set of macroprudential instruments, designed to help counter pro-cyclicality in the financial system. Capital should be accumulated when cyclical systemic risk is judged to be increasing, creating buffers that increase the resilience of the banking sector during periods of stress when losses materialise. This will help maintain the supply of credit and dampen the downswing of the financial cycle. The CCyB can also help dampen excessive credit growth during the upswing of the financial cycle.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

“Based on the review and empirical analysis of CCyB indicators, it has been decided that it is not necessary to activate CCyB for a period of one year or earlier, as may be necessary,”.

     SOURCES:THE HINDU/PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

 Let us ‘Discuss’

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Let us know what you think about this in the comment section.

     SOURCES:THE HINDU/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

 

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