IASbhai Daily Editorial Hunt | 6th Nov 2020
“Challenges are what make life interesting and overcoming them is what makes life meaningful.” – Joshua J. Marine
EDITORIAL HUNT #227 :“Chinese Occupied Kashmir 1800-2020 | UPSC”
Sujan R. Chinoy
Chinese Occupied Kashmir 1800-2020 | UPSC
Sujan R. Chinoy, a former Ambassador and China expert, is currently the Director General of the Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi.
The forgotten fact of China-Occupied Kashmir
The anniversary of the Instrument of Accession last month is a reminder of China’s illegal territorial occupation
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2 : IR
Chinese aggression towards India is not new. Since past 200 years Chinese have been deploying expansionist policy in south western frontier.Comment -(GS 2)
- Pretended harmony
- Chinese perspective on Kashmir
- Historical demarcation between Mountains
- Pakistan’s Connection
- PRETENDED HARMONY : Pakistan has feigned(insincere) solidarity with the people of Kashmir and continues to train and fund separatists and terrorists.
- FATF GLOBAL WATCHDOG : The Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the global watchdog that monitors terror financing, has retained Pakistan on its ‘Grey List’ for a good reason.
- CHINESE AMBITIONS : China’s support for Pakistan is motivated by a desire to perpetuate its own territorial grab in the trans-Karakoram Shaksgam Tract of Kashmir.
- CHINESE PERSPECTIVE : China treats the J&K issue as a “bilateral dispute left over from history” to be resolved between India and Pakistan.
- CHINESE TURNING BLIND EYE : China has turned a blind eye to the constitutional shenanigans(mischeif) by which Pakistan’s has acquired Gilgit-Baltistan and completely swayed over Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK).
- OMITTED TERMS : China ignores Pakistan’s agenda of integrating Gilgit-Baltistan as its fifth province.
- MAINTAINING STATUS QUO : China has the temerity (boldness) to question the establishment of the Union Territory of Ladakh and to term it a ‘unilateral’ attempt to change “the status quo in the Kashmir region”.
- LEGAL STANDING : China has no locus standi to comment on India’s internal affairs since the erstwhile princely State of J&K acceded to India through the Instrument of Accession on October 26, 1947.
- TRANS KARAKORAM TRACT : The Shaksgam valley in the trans-Karakoram tract, part of PoK, was handed over on a platter by a supine Pakistan to China through an illegal border agreement on March 2, 1963.
- RAIL-ROAD CORRIDOR : China and Pakistan have colluded to obfuscate these facts, even as they brazenly promote the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) which runs through parts of Indian territory under their respective occupation.
HISTORY, UNDERHAND METHODS
- FAULTY AFFIRMATIONS : China played an insidious role in changing the frontiers of Jammu and Kashmir through fictitious claims and unscrupulous alliances with local chieftains.
- CHINESE AGGRESSION : It pitched territorial claims far beyond the traditional frontiers of Xinjiang.
- ACCEPTED BOUNDARIES : It gradually crept into areas in the Taghdumbash Pamirs and the Karakorams, well south of its frontier along the Kun Lun mountains.
- EXPANSIONIST POLICY : By the 1890s, China had started asserting its presence in the valleys between the Kun Lun and the main Karakoram range.
- ANGLO-BRUSHO WAR : The British eroded the traditional frontiers of the Maharaja of Kashmir in the region around Shahidullah and also those of his vassal, the Mir of Hunza.
- CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR : After the Mir’s defeat in 1869 at the hands of the joint forces of the Maharaja and the British, the Chinese tried to co-opt him in their scheme while giving him refuge.
- CHINESE PRESENCE : The Chinese had started the practice of exchanging annual presents with the Mir of Hunza in recognition of his authority over the unruly nomadic tribes that inhabited these valleys.
- ACCESSION : The tradition of exchanging gifts with the Mir of Hunza was exploited to stake a retrospective claim to Hunza as a tributary of the Qing empire since 1762 AD.
- CHINESE 18TH CENTURY MAPS : This chicanery (deception) is contradicted by China’s own historical accounts and maps of the 18th and the 19th centuries which shows China extending barely up to the Kun Lun range.
- BRITISHERS CLAIMS : In 1936, the Mir of Hunza was asked by the British to abandon his rights in the Taghdumbash Pamirs as well as in the Raskam valley.
- FINAL BOUNDARIES : This remained the traditional frontier of British India until independence, inherited by India following J&K’s accession in 1947.
THE PAKISTAN CONNECTION
- CHINESE DEMARCATION : China’s expansionist designs and spurious claims ; Pakistan compromised India’s traditional frontier along the Kun Lun range to the north-west of the Karakoram Pass.
- EXTRAPOLATING BOUNDARIES : After Pakistan , China extrapolated a claim line eastwards along the Karakoram range in Ladakh.
- PATROLLING PARTY TRESPASSING : After the Partition of the Indian subcontinent, from 1953, Chinese troops actively started transgressing the frontier in eastern Hunza.
- TRANSFER OF POWER : Pakistan deliberately chose to downgrade the historical claims of the Mir of Hunza and eventually signed away the Shaksgam valley to China in 1963.
AS PARTY TO THE DISPUTE
- THE TERRITORIAL SETTLEMENT : The provisional nature of 1963 agreement between China and Pakistan is evident in Article 6 , which clearly states that -the two Parties have agreed that after the settlement of the Kashmir dispute between Pakistan and India.
- THE SOVEREIGN AUTHORITY : The authority concerned will reopen negotiations with the Government of the People’s Republic of China, on the boundary as described in Article Two of the present Agreement.
- CHINESE GAINS : In effect, this agreement has established China as a party to the dispute. It has a vested interest in legitimising its illegitimate gains in the trans-Karakoram tract.
The anniversary of the Instrument of Accession, on October 26, is a reminder of China’s illegal territorial occupation.
SOURCES: THE HINDU EDITORIAL HUNT | Chinese Occupied Kashmir 1800-2020 | UPSC