Body Mass Index (BMI) | UPSC

Body Mass Index (BMI) | UPSC

      HEADLINES:

Body mass index of Indian 19-year-olds among the lowest in 200 countries

      WHY IN NEWS:

India ranks third and fifth from the bottom respectively among countries-The Lancet.

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Science

      ISSUE: 

India ranks third and fifth from the bottom respectively among countries where 19-year-old girls and boys have a low body mass index. -The Lancet.

Body Mass Index (BMI) | UPSC

BODY MASS INDEX (BMI)

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters.

  • A high BMI can be an indicator of high body fatness.
  • BMI can be used to screen for weight categories that may lead to health problems but it is not diagnostic of the body fatness or health of an individual.

World Health Organization guidelines define a normal BMI range as 18.5 to 24.9, overweight as 25 or higher, and obesity as 30 or higher.

  • Adolphe Quetelet, a Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician, and sociologist, devised the basis of the BMI between 1830 and 1850 as he developed what he called “social physics“.

Body Mass Index (BMI) | UPSC

SOURCES : WIKIPEDIA 

CALCULATION

  • The study provides new estimates for height and BMI trends in 2019 across 200 countries after analysing data from 2,181 studies.
  • BMI is measured as the weight in kg divided by the square of the height in metres.

World Health Organization guidelines define a normal BMI range as 18.5 to 24.9, overweight as 25 or higher, and obesity as 30 or higher.

  • The mean BMI of 19-year-old boys is 20.1 in India, compared to a high of 29.6 in the Cook Islands and a low of 19.2 in Ethiopia.
  • For Indian girls, the mean BMI is again 20.1, compared to a high of 29.0 in Tonga and a low of 19.6 in Timor-Leste.
  • The mean height of Indian 19-year-olds is 166.5 cm for boys and 155.2 cm for girls, well below the high of Netherlands boys (183.8 cm) and girls (170 cm).

The 20 cm or higher difference between countries with the tallest and shortest mean height represents approximately 8 years of growth gap for girls and approximately 6 years for boys.

EXAMPLE
19-year-old girls in India have the same mean height as 12-year-old Dutch girls.

  • Both height and BMI have increased from 1985 to 2019 .

Body Mass Index (BMI) | UPSC

BMI FOR ADULTS | SOURCES : CDC.GOV.COM

APPLICATIONS

  • PUBLIC HEALTH : The BMI index is suitable for recognizing trends within sedentary or overweight individuals because there is a smaller margin of error.
  • CLINICAL PRACTICE : BMI categories are generally regarded as a satisfactory tool for measuring; underweightoverweight, or obese with various exceptions, such as: athletes, children, the elderly, and the infirm.
  • LEGISLATION : In France, Italy, and Spain, legislation has been introduced banning the usage of fashion show models having a BMI below 18.

BOOSTING BMI

DEVELOPING GOOD FOOD HABITS

  • Provide plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole-grain products.
  • Include low-fat or non-fat milk or dairy products, including cheese and yogurt.
  • Choose lean meats, poultry, fish, lentils, and beans for protein.
  • Drink lots of water.
  • Limit sugary drinks.
  • Limit consumption of sugar and saturated fat.

KEEPING THE BODY ACTIVE HELPS IN

  • Strengthening bones.
  • Decreasing blood pressure.
  • Reducing stress and anxiety.
  • Increasing self-esteem.
  • Helping with weight management.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Although there is still a great deal of potential for height while curbing any future rise in obesity so programmes targeted towards the poor from birth through school years are needed.
  • “In developing countries like India, we have a dual burden i.e., over-nutrition and undernutrition,”

The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents of both Indian girls and boys is lower when compared to children of developed nations.

  • The reasons could be several, like variations in the epigenetic, dietary intakes, familial, psychosocial, parental education, occupations, income etc.
  • The need for regular diet and nutrition surveys in India to avert the increase of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents.
  • “Overweight and obesity are mostly carried over to adult age and are causes for many metabolic disorders like insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, CVDs, stroke, and some cancers.”
     SOURCES:  THE IE | Body Mass Index (BMI) | UPSC

 

DISCOVER MORE : SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

If you liked this article, then please subscribe to our YouTube Channel for Daily Current Affairs , Editorial Analysis & Answer writing video tutorials. You can also find us on Twitter and Facebook.

0 Shares:
You May Also Like