Assessment of Climate Change over the Indian Region Report-MOES
Spike in sea temperatures, cyclones increase in Indian Ocean region: Report
WHY IN NEWS:
Temperature rise 0.3°C higher than the global average of 0.7°C; last two years see significant rise in number, intensity and unpredictability of cyclones
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 1 :3:Reports : Sea Surface Temperature : Geography : Global Warming
For PRELIMS we have analysed the report in depth ! Note down key point like what are the unexpected changes . You should also go through important definitions – Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Heat Flux .
ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE OVER THE INDIAN REGION
KEY TAKEAWAYS :
TEMPERATURE RISE : Sea surface temperatures in the tropical Indian Ocean rose by one degree Celsius on average between 1951-2015.
OCEAN HEAT CONTENT : Ocean heat content in the top 700 metres of the tropical Indian Ocean also rose with the past two decades displaying an abrupt rise.
OCEANS ABSORBING GHG : Oceans absorb around 90 per cent of the warming caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that can, in turn, lead to more intense cyclones, sea level rise and faster melting of polar ice shelves.
SEA LEVEL RISE : Sea levels in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) region rose by 3.3 millimetres every year between 1993 and 2017.
CYCLONE FREQUENCY : Overall frequency of cyclones decreased in the latter half of the last century and the first two decades of the 21st century.
CHANGING RAINFALL PATTERNS : Rainfall patterns have changed.There are longer dry spells intermittent with heavy rainfall events.
PROJECTED TEMPERATURE CHANGE :Temperatures are projected to rise by 2.7°C by 2040 and 4.4°C by the end of the century.
CATASTROPHIC COMPOUND EFFECTS:
- Local environments, with high population densities and land use conditions can increase risk and vulnerability to such events as well.
- The chances of such events overlapping were also large, multiplying the threat.
- All these trends will continue to rise if GHG emissions are not curbed.
- Global warming from GHG emissions presents unique challenges for India.
- This also held significance for regional geopolitical stability, as vulnerabilities of the country’s neighbours end up becoming national security and humanitarian crises.
“Adaptation to expected impacts will be the most critical with efforts to mitigate the impacts,”#Example : Afforestation and mangrove forest recovery.
SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains
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