All About Sputnik V Vaccine | UPSC

All About Sputnik V Vaccine | UPSC


Sputnik V vaccine 92% effective: Russia

      WHY IN NEWS:

No adverse events reported in Phase 3 trials that involved 36,000 volunteers, says its Health Ministry

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health:Diseases


For PRELIMS go through the principle and working of this vaccine.Remember the developers .

For MAINS nothing much here . Let us dive in !


Russia’s Sputnik V vaccine has proven to be “92% efficacious” among a group of volunteers who are part of Phase 3 trials


All About Sputnik V Vaccine | UPSC


  • Currently there are over 200 different COVID-19 vaccines under development around the world.

Sputnik V is the world’s first registered vaccine based on a well-studied human adenoviral vector-based platform.

  • It currently ranks among top-10 candidate vaccinesapproaching the end of clinical trials .
  • Start of mass production is on the World Health Organization’s (WHO) list.
  • The ongoing Sputnik V post-registration clinical trial in Russia involves 40,000 volunteers.
  • Clinical trials of Sputnik V have been announced in the UAE, India, Venezuela and Belarus.


The vaccine is named after the first Soviet space satellite.

  • The launch of Sputnik-1 in 1957 reinvigorated space research around the world, creating a so called “Sputnik moment” for the global community.


The Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology is the world’s leading research institution.

  • The center was founded in 1891 as a private laboratory.
  • Since 1949 it bears the name of Nikolai Gamaleya, a pioneer in Russian microbiology studies.
  • The center runs one of the unique “virus libraries” in the world and has its own vaccine production facility.


  • After the start of the COVID-19 pandemic Russian researchers extracted a fragment of genetic material from novel coronavirus SARS-COV-2.
  • It has coded information about the structure of the spike S-protein.
  • It forms the virus’ “crown” and is responsible for connection with human cells.

They inserted it into a familiar adenovirus vector for delivery into a human cell creating the world’s first COVID-19 vaccine. 

  • In order to ensure lasting immunity Russian scientists came up with a breakthrough idea to use two different types of adenovirus vectors (rAd26 and rAd5) .
  • These are two different adenovirus vectors for the first and second vaccination, boosting the effect of the vaccine.
  • The use of human adenoviruses as vectors is safe because these viruses, which cause the common cold, are not novel and have been around for thousands of years.


  • “Vectors” are vehicles, which can induce a genetic material from another virus into a cell.

The gene from adenovirus, which causes the infection, is removed while a gene with the code of a protein from another virus spike is inserted. 

  • This inserted element is safe for the body but still helps the immune system to react and produce antibodies, which protect us from the infection.
  • The technological platform of adenovirus-based vectors makes it easier and faster to create new vaccines.
  • Through modifying the initial carrier vector with genetic material from new emerging viruses that helps to create new vaccines in relatively short time.
  • Such vaccines provoke a strong response from a human immune system.
  • Human adenoviruses are considered as some of the easiest to engineer in this way and therefore they have become very popular as vectors.


  • Before the start of clinical trials the vaccine had gone through all stages of pre-clinical trials with experiments on animals, including 2 types of primates.
  • Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials of the vaccine have been completed on August 1, 2020.

All the volunteers are feeling well, no unforeseen or unwanted side effects were observed.

  • The vaccine induced strong antibody and cellular immune response.
  • Not a single participant of the current clinical trials got infected with COVID-19 after being administered with the vaccine.

The high efficacy of the vaccine was confirmed by high precision tests for antibodies in the blood serum of volunteers.

  • Post-registration clinical trials involving more than 40,000 people in Russia and Belarus were launched on August 25, 2020.
  • A number of countries, such as UAE, India, Venezuela, Egypt and Brazil have joined the clinical trials of Sputnik V locally.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The results were based on an analysis of 20 participants in the trial who were confirmed COVID-19 positive.

The trials consist of 20,000 people who got one dose of the vaccine, and 16,000 who got two, 14 days apart.

  • The efficacy percentage means that when cases were split among the placebo group and vaccinated group, 92% of those who were vaccinated were safe.
  • The plan is to ramp up the vaccine production by the end of 2020 in Russia and globally
     SOURCES:  THE HINDU | All About Sputnik V Vaccine | UPSC



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