All About Sputnik V Vaccine | UPSC

All About Sputnik V Vaccine | UPSC

      HEADLINES:

Sputnik V vaccine 92% effective: Russia

      WHY IN NEWS:

No adverse events reported in Phase 3 trials that involved 36,000 volunteers, says its Health Ministry

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health:Diseases

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS go through the principle and working of this vaccine.Remember the developers .

For MAINS nothing much here . Let us dive in !

      ISSUE: 

Russia’s Sputnik V vaccine has proven to be “92% efficacious” among a group of volunteers who are part of Phase 3 trials

SPUTNIK V VACCINE

All About Sputnik V Vaccine | UPSC

RACE FOR THE VACCINE

  • Currently there are over 200 different COVID-19 vaccines under development around the world.

Sputnik V is the world’s first registered vaccine based on a well-studied human adenoviral vector-based platform.

  • It currently ranks among top-10 candidate vaccinesapproaching the end of clinical trials .
  • Start of mass production is on the World Health Organization’s (WHO) list.
  • The ongoing Sputnik V post-registration clinical trial in Russia involves 40,000 volunteers.
  • Clinical trials of Sputnik V have been announced in the UAE, India, Venezuela and Belarus.

NAMING

The vaccine is named after the first Soviet space satellite.

  • The launch of Sputnik-1 in 1957 reinvigorated space research around the world, creating a so called “Sputnik moment” for the global community.

DEVELOPERS

The Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology is the world’s leading research institution.

  • The center was founded in 1891 as a private laboratory.
  • Since 1949 it bears the name of Nikolai Gamaleya, a pioneer in Russian microbiology studies.
  • The center runs one of the unique “virus libraries” in the world and has its own vaccine production facility.

SAFETY AND EFFICACY

  • After the start of the COVID-19 pandemic Russian researchers extracted a fragment of genetic material from novel coronavirus SARS-COV-2.
  • It has coded information about the structure of the spike S-protein.
  • It forms the virus’ “crown” and is responsible for connection with human cells.

They inserted it into a familiar adenovirus vector for delivery into a human cell creating the world’s first COVID-19 vaccine. 

  • In order to ensure lasting immunity Russian scientists came up with a breakthrough idea to use two different types of adenovirus vectors (rAd26 and rAd5) .
  • These are two different adenovirus vectors for the first and second vaccination, boosting the effect of the vaccine.
  • The use of human adenoviruses as vectors is safe because these viruses, which cause the common cold, are not novel and have been around for thousands of years.

HOW ADENOVIRAL VECTOR-BASED VACCINES WORK

  • “Vectors” are vehicles, which can induce a genetic material from another virus into a cell.

The gene from adenovirus, which causes the infection, is removed while a gene with the code of a protein from another virus spike is inserted. 

  • This inserted element is safe for the body but still helps the immune system to react and produce antibodies, which protect us from the infection.
  • The technological platform of adenovirus-based vectors makes it easier and faster to create new vaccines.
  • Through modifying the initial carrier vector with genetic material from new emerging viruses that helps to create new vaccines in relatively short time.
  • Such vaccines provoke a strong response from a human immune system.
  • Human adenoviruses are considered as some of the easiest to engineer in this way and therefore they have become very popular as vectors.

CLINICAL TRIALS

  • Before the start of clinical trials the vaccine had gone through all stages of pre-clinical trials with experiments on animals, including 2 types of primates.
  • Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials of the vaccine have been completed on August 1, 2020.

All the volunteers are feeling well, no unforeseen or unwanted side effects were observed.
 

  • The vaccine induced strong antibody and cellular immune response.
  • Not a single participant of the current clinical trials got infected with COVID-19 after being administered with the vaccine.

The high efficacy of the vaccine was confirmed by high precision tests for antibodies in the blood serum of volunteers.

  • Post-registration clinical trials involving more than 40,000 people in Russia and Belarus were launched on August 25, 2020.
  • A number of countries, such as UAE, India, Venezuela, Egypt and Brazil have joined the clinical trials of Sputnik V locally.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The results were based on an analysis of 20 participants in the trial who were confirmed COVID-19 positive.

The trials consist of 20,000 people who got one dose of the vaccine, and 16,000 who got two, 14 days apart.

  • The efficacy percentage means that when cases were split among the placebo group and vaccinated group, 92% of those who were vaccinated were safe.
  • The plan is to ramp up the vaccine production by the end of 2020 in Russia and globally
     SOURCES:  THE HINDU | All About Sputnik V Vaccine | UPSC

 

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