World Polio Day 2020 | UPSC
Why is World Polio Day observed, where India stands
WHY IN NEWS:
As per the CDC, Afghanistan and Pakistan are the last strongholds of the wild poliovirus. In Pakistan, the number of reported wild poliovirus cases has increased in 2020.
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health:Diseases
For PRELIMS it is important to understand the cause , symptoms and the treatment of this disease .
For MAINS go through the campaigns . Let us dive in !
WORLD POLIO DAY 2020
- October 24 is observed as World Polio Day every year in order to call on countries to stay vigilant in their fight against the disease.
- Jonas was the one who led the first team to develop the vaccine against the disease.
- In the last three decades, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), led by national governments with WHO.
COUNTRIES WITH RECENT OUTBREAK
- In 2019, polio outbreaks were recorded in the Philippines, Malaysia, Ghana, Myanmar, China, Cameroon, Indonesia and Iran.
- These were mostly vaccine-derived (a rare strain of the virus genetically mutated) from the strain in the vaccine.
- Afghanistan and Pakistan are the two countries that are the last stronghold of the wild poliovirus.-CDC
- In Pakistan, the number of reported wild poliovirus cases has increased in 2020.
- On the other hand, on August 25, the African Region was certified as wild poliovirus free.
- As per the CDC, as of October 7, there were more than 440 cases of poliovirus around the world.
SITUATION IN INDIA
- India was declared polio-free in January 2014, after three years of zero cases.
- The last case due to wild poliovirus in the country was detected on January 13, 2011.
WHAT IS POLIO?
- Polio is a crippling and potentially deadly disease that affects the nervous system.
- Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a disabling and life-threatening disease caused by the poliovirus.
- The virus spreads from person to person and can infect a person’s spinal cord, causing paralysis (can’t move parts of the body).
About 1 out of 4 people with poliovirus infection will have flu-like symptoms that may include:
- Sore throat
- Stomach pain
These symptoms usually last 2 to 5 days, then go away on their own.
More serious symptoms that affect the brain and spinal cord:
- Paresthesia (feeling of pins and needles in the legs)
- Paralysis (can’t move parts of the body) or weakness in the arms, legs, or both, occurs in about 1 out of 200 people with poliovirus infection
POLIO IS A FATAL DISEASE
- Paralysis is the most severe symptom associated with polio, because it can lead to permanent disability and death.
- Even children who seem to fully recover can develop new muscle pain, weakness, or paralysis as adults, 15 to 40 years later.
- This is called post-polio syndrome.
- “Poliomyelitis” (or “polio” for short) is defined as the paralytic disease.
- So only people with the paralytic infection are considered to have the disease.
- Poliovirus is very contagious and spreads through person-to-person contact.
- It lives in an infected person’s throat and intestines.
Poliovirus only infects people. It enters the body through the mouth and spreads through:
- Contact with the feces (poop) of an infected person.
- Droplets from a sneeze or cough of an infected person (less common).
- The virus can live in an infected person’s feces for many weeks.
- It can contaminate food and water in unsanitary conditions.
- People who don’t have symptoms can still pass the virus to others and make them sick.
PREVENTION & TREATMENT
There are two types of vaccine that can prevent polio:
- Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) given as an injection in the leg or arm, depending on the patient’s age.
- Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is still used throughout much of the world.
- Almost all children (99 children out of 100) who get all the recommended doses of the inactivated polio vaccine will be protected from polio.
- The virus multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis.
- Once that happens, the patient is crippled for life because there is no treatment for the affliction.
- Polio infection, however, can be easily prevented by a vaccine.
- There are three variants of the poliovirus, numbered 1 to 3.
- For eradication, cases of both wild and vaccine-derived polio infection have to be reduced to zero.
NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION DAYS
- As Polio is eliminated from India but the risk of importation still persists .
- As the disease is prevalent in three countries (Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria).
- This is maintained through National and Sub National Polio rounds along with sustained high quality polio surveillance.
SOURCES:THE IE | World Polio Day 2020 | UPSC