“The better you feel about yourself, The less you feel the need to show off.” 


PM-AASHA scheme


Govt. procured only 3% of pulses, oilseeds proposed for this season

      WHY IN NEWS: 

PM-AASHA target was 37.59 lakh metric tonnes; just 1.08 lakh tonnes purchased




For PRELIMS you have to dive in deep into PM-AASHA

For MAINS this article will give you Pros and Cons of the above scheme.


The PM-AASHA or Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay Sanrakshan Abhiyan, was announced with great fanfare in September 2018, as an effort to ensure that farmers growing pulses, oilseeds and copra actually get the minimum support prices they are promised for their crops each year.Less than 3% of this season’s sanctioned amount of pulses and oilseeds have actually been procured.


Arrival of pulses and oilseeds began in October and will end by February.


  • A total of 37.59 lakh metric tonnes of procurement had been sanctioned under the Centrally-funded scheme.
  • However, only 1.08 lakh tonnes have been procured so far
  • In fact, of the eleven States that opted for the scheme this season, procurement has not even started in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha.


  • Price support scheme whereby Central agencies would procure pulses and oilseeds directly from farmers.
  • Apart from initiatives to allow cash payment to farmers or procurement by private traders.
  • The main crops covered : moong, urad, arhar, groundnut and soyabean.


      IASbhai WINDUP: 


  • The highest sanctioned procurement is in Maharashtra, where 10 lakh tonnes of soyabean procurement were sanctioned, apart from 58,000 tonnes of moong and urad dal.
  • However, barely 1,709 tonnes have been procured in the State, including just 14 tonnes of soyabean.





Citizenship Bill


After Cabinet nod, Citizenship Bill ready for tabling in House

      WHY IN NEWS: 

It will not apply to the tribal areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura




For PRELIMS go back to laxmikant and compare the bill with the naturalisation process and Citizenship from birth.

For MAINS remember ! This bill is going to replace Citizenship Act 1955. We will cover this in detail again in upcoming days.


The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi cleared the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill.The Bill seeks to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955 by seeking to grant citizenship to undocumented non-Muslims from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan who came to India on or before December 31, 2014. 

The Bill does not apply in :

  • Bill shall not apply to tribal areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura as included in the sixth schedule of the Constitution and States of Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland protected by the Inner Line Permit (ILP).
  • Citizens of other States require ILP to visit the three States as per the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The exemption means that Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Parsi, Jain and Sikh communities from the three countries will not be able to take up jobs, purchase land or settle down in these areas.

Any confusion between NRC and CAB ?

Suggested Reading: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/citizenship-amendment-bill-all-you-need-to-know/story-NrxfGMoklAsKGq80bT0IIL.html





Deemed forest  tag


Centre likely to challenge Uttarakhand forest notice

      WHY IN NEWS: 

It will contest ‘deemed forest’ tag




For PRELIMS you have to note what is protected, deemed, reserved forests and who is protecting them under which acts.

For MAINS let this controversy grow a little 😉  Issues subjected to national interest would worth our discussions.


The Union Environment Ministry is likely to challenge a recent notification by the Uttarakhand Forest Department on its definition of a “deemed forest”. Deemed forests, which comprise about 1% of India’s forest land, are a controversial subject as they refer to land tracts that appear to be a “forest”, but have not been notified so by the government or in historical records.



  • The freedom to define which tracts of forest qualify as forest has been the prerogative of States since 1996.
  • The SC 1996 judgement, had broadened the definition of forest to include not just land classified as forest under forest or revenue departments, but also those that are forests according to the definition of a forest.
  • However, this only applies to forest land that has not already been historically classified as “forest” in revenue records, or categorised so by the government as “protected” or “reserve forest”.

Deemed Forests

  • It had then also asked states to form committees to identify forests, irrespective of the nature of land ownership or whether they are notified, recognised or classified in a time-bound manner.
  • There are forests that are notified either with the forest department or revenue department.
  • Then there are those areas that are like forests but are neither recorded, nor notified. The Supreme Court had ordered that the states identify and classify these as deemed forests.


      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Deemed forests are already a legal category of forests in some states and they are not defined according to the dictionary definition.


  1. No public entry
  2. 53% of total forest land.


  1. Locals are allowed with restrictions.
  2. 29% of total forest land.







India, China have perceptional differences over LAC: Rajnath

      WHY IN NEWS: 

Mechanism in place to prevent escalation: Defence Minister




For PRELIMS lets understand what is LAC

For MAINS there are some differences on LAC between Sino-India. Analyse them all and make a Mind map.


Defence Minister Rajnath Singh on Wednesday told the Lok Sabha that there are “perceptional differences” between India and China on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) but the two countries have a mechanism that prevents any escalation of conflict.

What is LAC?

  • Line of Actual Control is the effective military border which separates Indian controlled areas of Jammu and Kashmir from Aksai Chin.

Image result for line of actual control


  • Indians consider Johnson Line of 1865 as the boundary, whereas PRC government claims Macartney-MacDonald Line of 1899 as the accepted boundary.
  • This term LAC got legally recognized during Sino-Indian agreements which were signed in 1993 and 1996.
  • LAC has been a sensitive issue just like LOC.
  • In 1962, a brief war had killed more than 2000 people.
  • This war has resulted from the Himalayan border dispute.


  • It is the effective border between People’s Republic of china and India. It is nearly 4,057 km long.
  • It touches  Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himanchal and Sikkim of Indian states.
  • This border is not a legally recognized international boundary, but rather it is the practical boundary.


  • Apart from the geographical differences, LOC is a clearly demarcated line and a lot of activity takes place in this region, which involves firings, face to face confrontation, etc.
  • On the other hand, LAC is not clearly demarcated and nearly 50 to 100 km distance is maintained between the two armies.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

The Defence Minister said that whenever a situation of confrontation arises, Armies of the two countries handle it in a very “mature” way.




Right of an accused to a fair trial’


Leave merits of case for trial, says SC

      WHY IN NEWS: 

‘Prejudging offence to deny bail is against the right of an accused to a fair trial’




For PRELIMS not much important.

For MAINS revise Article 21,22 and please read suggested reading .


A tendency among government agencies to hand over documents in sealed covers to courts in “every case”, coupled with an inclination among judges to reproduce their contents verbatim as judicial findings to deny bail, is against the right of an accused to a fair trial



  • “It would be against the concept of fair trial if in every case the prosecution presents documents in sealed cover and the findings on the same are recorded as if the offence is committed and the same is treated as having a bearing for denial or grant of bail.

Pressing documents

  • The agencies present these documents as evidence collected against the accused in the course of investigation.
  •  The situation was made worse when judges converted the findings of the investigative agencies in these documents into their own judicial findings and reproduced them in orders refusing the accused bail.

Reproducing material

  • The court said though it was open for a judge to receive the materials/documents collected during the investigation either to “satisfy its conscience that the investigation is proceeding on the right lines” or grant bail, the judge could not reproduce the material as his own findings in a judicial order.


      IASbhai WINDUP: 

“Equality, Justice and Liberty” is the trinity of fair trial recognised in the administration of justice of India where the affluent and the “lowly and lost” have the equality of access to justice in the administration of justice in general and the criminal justice system in particular.

Merits of a case should be left for the trial where the accused can defend himself.

REVISE : http://www.legalservicesindia.com/article/1759/Fair-Trial-under-Section-304-of-Crpc.html




Global Climate Risk Index


Climate-related disasters on the uptick

      WHY IN NEWS: 

Japan worst-hit, India ranked fifth for water shortages, crop failures and flooding

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Environment:Index



For PRELIMS this report is very important and its significance.

For MAINS there are some points which you can collect ! Rest all is not important.


The Global Climate Risk Index, published by environmental think-tank Germanwatch, rated Japan as the most-affected country in 2018, while Germany was in third position.

What is Germanwatch doing ?

  • Germanwatch receives its data for annually calculating the Global Climate Risk Index from the NatCatSERVICE database of the reinsurance company Munich Re, as well as the socio-economic data of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
  • Since 2006, Germanwatch has presented the index at the annual UN climate.

What they found this year?

  • Worsening heatwaves are taking a heavier toll on rich as well as poor countries, according to an annual ranking that measures the damage done by extreme weather to human life and economies.
  • Both of the industrialised nations were hit hard by heatwaves and drought that year, as was India — in fifth position — which suffered water shortages, crop failures and worst flooding.


      IASbhai WINDUP: 


Japan>Philippines> Germany in the period from April-July 2018 was the hottest ever recorded in the country, leading to the deaths of over 1,200 people.





Exchange traded fund (ETF)


Cabinet okays bond ETFs

      WHY IN NEWS: 

Bharat Bond ETF would be India’s first corporate bond exchange traded fund




For PRELIMS this is very important issue , Concentrate on What is Bharat Bond ETF;Purpose;etc


“The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has given its approval for creation and launch of Bharat Bond Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) to create an additional source of funding for Central Public Sector Undertakings (CPSUs), Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs), Central Public Financial Institutions (CPFIs), and other government organisations,”


What Is an ETF?

  • An exchange-traded fund (ETF) is a type of security that involves a collection of securities—such as stocks—that often tracks an underlying index, although they can invest in any number of industry sectors or use various strategies.
  • ETFs are in many ways similar to mutual funds; however, they are listed on exchanges and ETF shares trade throughout the day just like ordinary stock.


More about Bharat Bond ETF:

  • “Bharat Bond ETF would be the first corporate bond ETF in the country,” .
  • The ETF will comprise a basket of bonds issued by the CPSEs, CPSUs, CPFIs, and other government organisations and all will be initially AAA-rated bonds.
  • The unit size of the bond has been kept at just ₹1,000 so that retail investors can invest and it’s not a matter of having crores to invest,”
  • Each ETF will have a fixed maturity date and initially they will be issued in two series, of three years and 10 years.

Additional source

  • On the issuer side, the bond ETFs are expected to offer CPSEs, CPSUs, CPFIs and other government organisations an additional source of meeting their borrowing requirements, apart from bank financing.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

“Bond ETF will provide safety (underlying bonds are issued by CPSEs and other government-owned entities), liquidity (tradability on exchange) and predictable tax efficient returns,”.



Financial Assistance to Poor Patients


Financial Assistance to Poor Patients


Ministry of Health and Family Welfare




For PRELIMS just know these supplementary schemes. They can be a pointer in any MCQs.

For MAINS use them effectively with co-relation .


The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare provides financial assistance for treatment of  poor patients suffering from  identified life threatening diseases and taking treatment in Government hospitals

Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi (RAN)

  1. Under the Umbrella Scheme of RAN financial assistance is provided to patients belonging to families living below State/UT-wise threshold poverty lines and who are suffering from major life threatening diseases/cancer/rare diseases, to receive medical treatment at Government hospitals.
  2. Financial assistance up to Rs.15 lakh is provided for eligible patients in the form of ‘one-time grant’ to the Medical Superintendent of the Government hospital where the treatment is being received.

The scheme has three components:

  1. Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi (RAN) – to provide financial assistance to patients suffering from life threatening diseases other than Cancer,
  2. Health Minister’s Cancer Patients Fund (HMCPF) -to provide financial assistance to patients suffering from Cancer; and
  3. Scheme for financial assistance for patients suffering from specified rare diseases.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Only cases involving treatment beyond Rs. 5 lakh in hospitals with revolving fund and all the cases for financial assistance from hospitals not having revolving fund are referred to Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India for approval.

All other cases are handled by the Hospital administration only.




National Florence Nightingale Awards


Address by the Hon’ble President of India Shri Ram Nath Kovind On the occasion of presentation of National Florence Nightingale Awards for Nursing Personnel

      WHY IN NEWS: 

PIB fresh release !




For PRELIMS let us understand the meaning of this award why it is given and when ?

For MAINS nothing much here !



Who Was Florence Nightingale?

Florence Nightingale was born in Florence, Italy, on May 12, 1820. Part of a wealthy family, Nightingale defied the expectations of the time and pursued what she saw as her God-given calling of nursing. During the Crimean War, she and a team of nurses improved the unsanitary conditions at a British base hospital, greatly reducing the death count.

Why this Award and since when ?
  • The Government of India instituted these awards in 1973.
  • They are named after Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing, and the very icon of selfless care.
  • Late Mrs. Lini Puthuserry who is today being honoured posthumously for her unsurpassed dedication while taking care of patients during the Nipah virus outbreak in Kerala.

      IASbhai WINDUP:

World Health Organisation has announced 2020 as the Year of the Nurse and Mid-wife. Incidentally, 2020 will also mark the 200th birth anniversary of Florence Nightingale.






E-pharmacies in for more pain, but cure in sight


SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals



For PRELIMS facts relevant to e pharmacies is important . Rest is junk!

For MAINS this is a guide to E Pharmacies !


The Centre has ordered a halt to online drug sales through unlicensed online platforms—e-pharmacies—as it works on rules to regulate the sector.

How are e-pharmacies different?

  • E-pharmacies receive request for prescription and non-prescription medicines. For prescription drugs, the doctor’s instruction note has to be uploaded.
  • Medical devices like blood pressure and sugar monitor can also be ordered through them.
  • These platforms then forward the orders to a licensed pharmacy in their network that is registered with the government authorities.
  • They deliver the order to the customer through a courier.
  • Some e-pharmacies also stock medicines and thus dispense directly.
  • The new draft rules require all digital platforms engaged in this business to register with the regulator and be available for inspections.

How big is the sector, what is its growth rate?

  • The sector caters to about 5 million patients a month.
  • Research and Markets, a market research firm, estimates the industry size at ₹2,000-3,000 crore .
  • Online pharmacies have so far attracted investments of over $500 million from members of the Indian Private Equity and Venture Capital Association.
  • As per an EY report, the industry is expected to touch $2.7 billion by 2023.

Does this mean online drug sales will stop for now?

  • There’s ambiguity on who can sell and who can’t.
  • Offline retailers say existing laws bar e-pharmacies from selling drugs.
  • Online retailers say they are operating through licensed retailers and are hence not barred.
  • The draft rules allow only government-registered e-portals to sell drugs; they must retain the prescriptions and verify patients’ and doctors’ details.

What do e-pharmacies say about regulations?

  • There are “miscreants”—mostly outside India and some local players—which do not follow laws and sell medicines without prescription or licence.
  • The sector claims that the benefit of the digital system is a fully accountable and auditable track, so every transaction can be verified with its prescription and invoice.


      IASbhai WINDUP: 

What’s the argument of offline chemists?

Offline pharmacists have suffered due to the emergence of online sellers. According to the All India Organisation of Chemists and Druggists, patients risk revealing their private health issues due to the information they share online. It is concerned about the indiscriminate sale of habit-forming drugs, misuse of medicines and rising antimicrobial resistance. The industry body also claims loss of jobs. E-pharmacies, loaded with large private capital, offer 15-20% discounts, which offline retailers cannot match.




Data privacy bill


Data protection law closer to reality with cabinet nod Data privacy bill gets cabinet nod

      WHY IN NEWS: 

The Union cabinet on Wednesday gave its approval to the Personal Data Protection Bill.

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2:3:Data protection :Bills



For MAINS this question can become little important !


The Union cabinet on Wednesday gave its approval to the Personal Data Protection Bill that seeks to lay down a legal framework to preserve the sanctity of “consent” in data sharing and penalize those breaching privacy norms.


In line with the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the government last year introduced a draft personal data protection bill to regulate the use of an individual’s data by the government and private companies.

Currently, there are no laws on the use of personal data and preventing its misuse, although the Supreme Court upheld the right to privacy as a fundamental right back in 2017.

So what is Data protection Bill ? 

  • The bill proposes social media platforms to create a mechanism so that for “every user who registers their service from India or uses their service from India, a voluntary verifiable account mechanism has to be made”.
  • The provision puts the onus of creating the mechanism on the company. The provision is largely aimed at checking social media trolling.
  • The bill categorizes data into three categories—critical, sensitive and general.
  1. Sensitive datafinancial, health, sexual orientation, biometrics, transgender status, religious or political beliefs and affiliationcan be stored only in India. However, data can be processed outside India with explicit consent.
  2. Critical data will be defined by the government from time to time and has to be stored and processed in India.
  3. Any data that is non-critical and non-sensitive will be categorized as general data with no restriction on where it is stored or processed.

The Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018, was prepared by a high-level expert group headed by former Supreme Court judge B.N. Srikrishna. However, interministerial consultations delayed its approval.



  • However, in the interest of national security, certain agencies can have access to personal data for any investigation pertaining to offences.
  • “Technological evidence is the best evidence. Investigation of crime is public purpose; hence, under the garb of data protection, one cannot cage the rights of an investigating agency,”


  • As far as violations are concerned, a company will have to cough up as much as ₹5 crore or 2% of its worldwide turnover, whichever is higher, in case there is a data breach or inaction by the fiduciary or a minor violation.
  • In case of major violations such as data processed or shared without consent, there will be a penalty of ₹15 crore or 4% of global turnover.
  • Besides, there is also a jail term for any violation.


      IASbhai WINDUP: 

“The bill will encourage entities to start processing data in India and with high level of data consumption, the country is expected to become one of the world’s biggest centres of data refinery. The bill allows processing of data for lawful purpose only.

“What most people don’t realize is that unlike most other Indian laws, the Personal Data Protection Bill only lists a set of broad principles that lay down the contours of privacy in the country. That in itself offers neither a clear road map for governance nor any of the details that data principals, and fiduciaries alike, would need in order to understand their rights and obligations.

No personal data can be processed except for specific clear and lawful purpose.






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