WhatsApp chats


Court to look into govt. plea for access to WhatsApp chats

       WHY IN NEWS?  

A terrorist cannot claim privacy, Centre tells SC

GS 2: Fundamental rights:Privacy:IT ACT


For PRELIMS you need to concentrate on INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY act and recent developments

For MAINS you have to look for what are the pros and cons of privacy breach on an individual.


  • The Supreme Court has decided to examine whether social media intermediaries, such as Facebook and WhatsApp, should facilitate the state to access encrypted and private conversations of citizens, purportedly to fight crime and terror.

  • The court is waiting for the Centre to notify the revised Information Technology Intermediaries Guidelines (Amendment) Rules by January 15. These Rules, said the government, were born out of 
  • submitted Attorney General K.K. Venugopal, along with Tamil Nadu Advocate General Vijay Narayan and Additional Advocate General Balaji Srinivasan.

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  • the present day need to usher in a stricter regime and more cooperation to combat the spread of pornography, sedition, hate, fake news, “anti-national activities and terror” online.
  • A terrorist cannot claim privacy,”
  • State and the companies use censorship because they have a responsibility to protect their users and deter potential violence.


  • This can affected personal freedom. 

  • Parliament had empowered the government through Section 69 (1) of the Information Technology Act to lawfully intercept, monitor and decrypt information through a computer resource if “satisfied that it is necessary or expedient to do so in the interest of the sovereignty or integrity of India, defence of India, security of the state, friendly relations with foreign states or public order or for preventing incitement to the commission of any cognisable offence or for investigation of any offence.”
  • Mr. Rohatgi said the social media intermediaries were under no obligation to disclose details of private accounts. This would breach privacy.
  • Justice Bose put matters in perspective, saying the social intermediaries could not claim protection under the fundamental rights of 19(1)(a) and (g) — right to free speech and right to practise any profession. “You are not an Indian citizen,” he explained.

       IASbhai Windup:  

Censorship of this kind is additionally problematic because there is little transparency in how state or private companies censor. Information barrier can create huge gap between citizen and chosen candidiate.

Still a perfect balance between “national interest, sovereignty and police investigation with individual privacy.” has to be found.



Sahyadri and Kiltan


Visit of Indian Naval Ships to  Manila, Philippines

       WHY IN NEWS?  

As part of Indian Navy’s Overseas Deployment to South East Asia and Western Pacific, Indian Navy ships Sahyadri and Kiltan are making a port call at Manila, Philippines from 23 – 26 Oct 19.

GS 3:Defence:INS.


For PRELIMS you need to concentrate on INS SAHYADRI and INS KILTAN.

For MAINS you have to understand why maritime security is important in IOR.



  • INS Sahyadri  is a Shivalik-class stealth multi-role frigate built for the Indian Navy.
  • This class features improved stealth and land attack capabilities over the preceding Talwar-class frigates.
  • It recently participated in RIMPAC and has been adjudged runner-up in an innovation competition.


INS Sahyadri was built at the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) located in Mumbai.


INTRODUCTION: Indigenously-built anti-submarine warfare stealth corvette INS Kiltan was commissioned an into the Indian Navy at the Eastern Naval Command (Naval Dockyard) in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.


It is India’s first major warship to have a superstructure of carbon fibre composite material resulting in improved stealth features.


INS Kiltan is third of four Kamorta-class corvettes being built under Project 28. It is latest indigenous warship after Shivalik Class, Kolkata Class and sister ships INS Kamorta and INS Kadmatt of Indian Navy’s arsenal. 


The stealth corvette derives its name from one of islands in Aminidivi group of strategically located Lakshadweep and Minicoy group of islands. 


It is 109 meters in length and 14 meters at beam and is propelled by four diesel engines to achieve speeds in excess of 25 knots with an endurance of 3450 nautical miles. It has displacement capacity of 3500 tonnes and has installed propulsion and auxiliary systems that provides very low radiated underwater noise feature, required for anti-submarine warfare.

Stealth features: 

Enhanced stealth features of the ship have been achieved by ‘X’ form of Hull, full beam superstructure, inclined ship sides and use of InfraRed Signature Suppression (IRSS) system designed by NSTL for cooling the Engine and Generator exhausts.


The ship hosts predominantly indigenous cutting-edge weapons and sensors suite which includes heavyweight torpedoes, ASW rockets, missile decoy rockets (Chaff), advanced Electronic Support Measure system, 76 mm calibre Medium Range gun and two multi-barrel 30 mm guns as close-in-weapon system (CIWS) with dedicated fire control systems, most advanced bow mounted sonar and air surveillance radar Revathi. In future, it will be installed with short range SAM system and carry an integral ASW helicopter.

        IASbhai Windup:  

In May 2016, INS Sahyadri was awarded the ‘Best Ship Trophy’ at the annual Fleet Awards function in Visakhapatnam


Stubble crop burning


As paddy harvesting has gathered momentum in Punjab, the key grain producing State, as many as 3,307 cases of stubble fire incidents have been reported till October 21, as against 2,564 incidents in the corresponding period last year.

       WHY IN NEWS?  

The government data is based on the satellite aggregation during the ongoing kharif season, between October 1 till October 21.

GS 3: AQI; Stubble crop burning.


For PRELIMS you need to concentrate on Air quality index, numbers are not important in this issue; but the methods used to 

For MAINS you have to look into this issue and resolve using technology


District Tarn Taran has seen the highest number of farm fire cases at 705, while Amritsar with 500 cases is at the second spot. Patiala district recorded as many as 431 cases to be at the third place on the list, according to the Punjab Pollution Control Board.

Stubble burning, close to the autumn season every year, has been a key contributing factor of pollution in the air and breathing problems among people across the northern region, including New Delhi.

Early harvest

For management of paddy straw without burning, the Centre and the State government are providing subsidised agro-machines and equipment to farmers and cooperative societies. Yet farmers continue to burn crop residue claiming lack of alternatives.

“The government should first compensate us and then ask us to refrain from burning crop residue. We should be given a bonus of ₹100 per quintal on paddy or paid ₹3,000 per acre as compensation for expenses incurred on the alternative means of stubble burning,” said Harinder Singh, general secretary of the Bharti Kisan Union (Lakhowal).

He said that if farmers are not suitably compensated for stubble burning, the outfit will launch an agitation.

No challaans issued

Meanwhile, the State government has so far not issued any ‘challaan’ to those farmers who have been defying the ban on stubble burning. The ban and action against people burning crop residue is regulated under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.




Historically, stubble has been burnt because it improves weed control and creates easier passage for seeding equipment. However, the practice of burning stubble has recently declined due to concerns about soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter. Instead of being burnt, stubble is increasingly being retained which has several advantages for soil fertility and productivity .


  • History tells that stubble burning controls weeds but retaining stubble has several advantages for soil fertility and productivity.
  • Burning decrease soil erosion and increase soil water content(decreases run off of water).
  • The ash content increases labile carbon, which increases the biological fertility of soil.
  • If controlling weeds is the aim, then it alternatively also reduces soil erosion risks.


  • Open burning of husk produces harmful smoke that causes pollution. Open burning of husk is of incomplete combustion in nature. Pollutants contain harmful gases like Methane, Carbon Monoxide (CO), Volatile organic compound (VOC) and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
  • Clouds of ash and smoke can travel more than thousand kilometers and create an obstinate and non-clearing clouds. Smog formed of the smoke can increase the levels of pollutants by manifolds in the air, making it difficult to breathe.  Ex:HAZE formation.
  • Burning husk on ground destroys the nutrients in the soil, making it less fertile. Heat generated by stubble burning penetrates into the soil, leading to the loss of the moisture and useful microbes. Thus adversely affecting the soil. It kills natural nutrients and bacteria that helps rejuvenate soil.
  • The burning of paddy or stubble leads to the loss of precious nutrients as nearly 25% nitrogen and phosphorus, 50% Sulphur and 75% potassium uptake from the soil are retained soil residues.
  • Husk has high prolific value. Rice husk is unusually high in ash, which is 92-95% silica, highly porous and lightweight, with a very high surface area. 


Few possible alternatives to Stubble Burning can be:

  • Happy Seeder Machine.
  • Subsidising or availing the stubble collecting machines at rent.
  • Providing reasonable labor to reap the paddy to avoid stubble generation.
  • Allowing cattle to graze or feed upon to clear away husk and stubble.
  • Decomposing stubble in the farm field and turning it into the useful manure.
  • Making fodder for livestock out of collected stubble.
  • Setting up Bio-mass fuel plants to generate fuel using paddy husk.
  • State should Involve or invite benefiting industries like cement industry to collaborate in husk/hull or stubble collection to use it proficiently.
  • Inviting packaging industries to collect stubble to make packaging boxes which are more environment friendly than other non-disposable materials like thermocole and plastic.

        IASbhai Windup:  

Paddy has been sown in nearly 29.20 lakh hectares this season. It is estimated that over 15 million tonnes of paddy straw is burnt in the open fields to clear the land for sowing wheat or other crops.





Vice President to lead the Indian delegation to the XVIII NAM Summit in Baku, Azerbaijan

       WHY IN NEWS?  

PMO skipped this meeting.



For PRELIMS you need to concentrate on this organisation , memberships as well as theme of the meeting this Year !

For MAINS you have to portrait an answer how and why India is footing a step backward when it comes to NAM in the recent years. 


The Vice President, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu will lead the Indian delegation at the XVIII Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) to be held at Baku, Azerbaijan on 25-26 October.

The theme for the XVIII NAM Summit is “Upholding the Bandung Principles to ensure concerted and adequate response to the challenges of contemporary world”.

  • The Ten Principles of Bandung, a political statement encapsulating the need to promote world peace and cooperation were formulated at the Asian-African Conference in 1955.
  • The theme is significant as it relates to the forthcoming 65th anniversary of Bandung Principles in 2020 and the 60th anniversary of the establishment of the Movement in 2021.
  • India is one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), which was established in 1961 with 29 members. It has since grown to 120 members to become one of the largest groupings of nation-states
  • The Summit will focus on a whole gamut of contemporary issues such as Terrorism, threats to peace and security, UN reform, climate change, sustainable development, economic governance and south-south cooperation.


  • The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is the biggest forum for political coordination and consultation after and within the United Nations, composed by 120 Member States from the developing world.
  • There are also 17 countries and 10 International Organizations that hold an Observer status.
  • The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) works from a unique, non-hierarchical, rotating and participatory standpoint, with the intention of enabling every single Member State, without differentiation or discrimination of any kind, to involve itself in the decision making of global and political processes.
  • The Movement is led by a Chair that rotates every three years, currently Venezuela, who is assisted and/or advised by the former and upcoming Chair of the Movement; that is, Iran and Azerbaijan, respectively.
  • The Troika represents the past, present and future of the Movement.
  • The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was officially established in 1961, at the Belgrade Summit, hosted by President Josip Broz Tito, following the discussions that were triggered during the Afro-Asian Conference of 1955, hosted by President Sukarno, and which resulted in the adoption of the Bandung Principles that up to date still serve as the purposes and objectives of the policy of non-alignment, and which have governed relations between big and small nations.
  • The following are considered to be the founding fathers and historic leaders of the Movement: Joseph Broz Tito (President of Yugoslavia), Gamal Abdel Nasser (President of Egypt), Jawaharlal Nehru (Prime Minister of India), Sukarno (President of Indonesia), and Kwame Nkrumah (President of Ghana), who decided to declare it as a Movement, with a view to avoid the bureaucratic implications of an International Organization.
  • The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was established in the midst of the collapse of the colonial system and the emancipatory struggle of the oppressed peoples of Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and other regions of the world, and at the heights of the Cold War.
  • At the beginning of the Movement, its actions and endeavors constituted a key factor in the processes of decolonization, which then led to the achievement of the freedom and independence of many countries and peoples, and to the formation of new States, which then became part of it.
  • In addition, throughout its almost 60 years of existence, the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) has played an important role in the strengthening of international peace and security, within the framework of its permanent quest for establishing a more peaceful and prosperous world.

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) takes its decisions by consensus, which enhances the unity and solidarity among the Member States of the Movement.  Such practice presupposes the understanding of and the respect for different points of view, including disagreement and implies mutual accommodation on the basis of which agreement can emerge by a sincere process of adjustment among member nations in the true spirit of non-alignment. 

        IASbhai Windup:  

Historically, the Member States of the Movement have shown their ability to overcome their differences and found a common ground for action that leads to mutual cooperation and the upholding of their shared values.




‘Goa mulling ban on public smoking’.


‘Goa mulling ban on public smoking’.

       WHY IN NEWS? 

‘Launch of Mission Tobacco Free’ event at Goa Medical College.


The Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2018 had revealed that 9.7% of adults in Goa either smoke or use smokeless tobacco.

Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2018:


  • The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) is a global standard for systematically monitoring adult tobacco use (smoking and smokeless) and tracking key tobacco control indicators.
  • GATS is a nationally representative survey, using a consistent and standard protocol across countries including India. GATS enhances countries’ capacity to design, implement and evaluate tobacco control programs.

What else they do ?

  • It will also assist countries to fulill their obligations under the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) to generate comparable data within and across countries.
  • WHO has developed MPOWER, a package of selected demand reduction measures contained in the WHO FCTC that includes:

MONITORING tobbaco use,protecting people from smoke,raising taxes etc



Ramgarh dam


Villagers demand new lease of life for Ramgarh dam

       WHY IN NEWS? 

‘Remove encroachments, supply Chambal river water through proposed canal’


Ramgarh dam:

 State :Rajasthan

ISSUE ?This dam supplied drinking water to the city of Jaipur has dried completely in the last decade.

  • To resolve this problem a proposal is suggested that the Chambal river water be supplied to the dam through the proposed Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project.
  • The dam was constructed in 1904 by  erstwhile Jaipur ruler Sawai Madho Singh-II.
  • Ramgarh lake had hosted rowing events during the 1982 Asian Games.






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